Review Article - Journal of Food Microbiology (2018) Volume 2, Issue 1
Unmasking the gut-brain axis: How the microbiota influences brain and behavior.
Translational Research seems to occupy the center of health research. A proof of this is that articles about metabolites depending on the metabolism of the intestinal microbiota associating with the gut-brain axis. Human gut harbors trillions of bacteria affecting immune system homeostasis, production of essential nutrients and protection against pathogenic germs. The intestinal mesenteric lymphatic system, gut-associated lymphoid tissue is an interface between blood and intestinal lymphatic fluid and provides activated immune cells to the intestinal epithelium and to the lamina propria. Environmental factors such as, diet, use of antibiotics, environmental contamination, exposure to microorganisms, among others, thus increasing the risk of bacterial imbalance. Gut dysbiosis affects central nervous system (CNS) responses activated by circumventricular organs during systemic inflammation. Besides, the vagal afferent pathway also mediates immune system (IS) signals to the CNS. One of the ways in which the CNS communicates with the IS is through the autonomic nervous system and myenteric plexus. The link between gut functions, emotional and cognitive processes is provided by bi-directional afferent and efferent neural projection pathways, neuroendocrine signals, immunological activation and gut-brain signals, altered gut permeability, and modulation of sensorimotor reflexes. Gut microbiota developed as a critical component that has potential to affect immunoneuro- endocrine pathways. Studies have shown that the intestinal microbiota substantially affects the neuroendocrine axis.Author(s): Pimenta FS*, Ton AMM, Guerra TO, Alves GG, Campagnaro BP