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Nutritional rickets in childhood: retrospective assessment of clinical data of forty five cases seen in a Nigerian tertiary healthcare institution.

Nutritional rickets is common in Nigeria despite abundant tropical sunshine and its reemergence has been documented in both developed and developing countries. To document our observation on nutritional rickets in childhood in Benin City. A retrospective chart audit was performed, covering a 12-year period on 45 children with nutritional rickets, diagnosed by clinical, biochemical and radiologic parameters. The peak age group at presentation was 2-3 years with a mean duration of symptoms before presentation of 19.0 ±11.8 months (95% Confidence Interval, CI=15.56-22.44). Male-to-female ration was 2.2:1. The commonest mode of presentation was lower limb deformity (82.2% of all cases). No case presented with hypocalcaemic seizures. The mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 20.3±9.7 months (95% CI=17.47-23.13). The mean serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase were 2.0±0.3 mmol/L (95% CI=1.88-2.12), 1.2±04 mmol/L (95% CI=1.03-1.42), and alkaline phosphatase 276.4±38.6 IU/L(95% CI= 258.6-294.2) respectively. Normal values in UBTH were 2.15-2.55 mmol/L, 0.8-1.48 mmol/L and 30-90 IU/L for calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase respectively. The mean serum albumin was 3.9±0.6 mg/dl (95% CI=3.56-4.24). Nutritional rickets commonly presents after the age of 2 years with lower limb deformity and a male preponderance.

Author(s): Alphonsus N. Onyiriuka, Phillip O. Abiodun, Fidelis U. Onyiriuka