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A Profile of Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati.

Objective: To study the incidence, risk factors and outcome of HIE in NICU of Gauhati Medical College and Hospital (GMCH). Design: Prospective study. Setting: Tertiary care Hospital. Participants: 228 term inborn babies who met the inclusion criteria were studied over a period of 12 months. Intervention: None Outcome measures: Incidence of HIE, Risk factors of HIE and Outcome among babies with HIE. Results: The incidence of HIE was 19.97/1000 term live births or 1.9%. The statistically significant antepartum, intrapartum risk factors were primigravida (p=0.0092), fetal distress (p=0.005) and prolonged labour (p=0.0003). When the antepartum and intrapartum risk factors were distributed in the three grades of HIE (HIE I, II, III) statistically significant risk factors were Spontaneous vaginal delivery/Assisted vaginal delivery (p=0.0177), fetal distress (p=0.0024) and prolonged labour (p=0.0264). Out of 228 babies with HIE 87(38.15%) were discharged, 71(31.14%) had expired and 70(30.71%) were taken away against medical advice by the attendants. There was no deaths in babies with HIE I, however 10(15.62%) babies with HIE II and 61(93.84%) babies with HIE III were expired. 59(60%) babies with HIE I was discharged, whereas 25(39%) babies with HIE II and only 3(4.6%) babies with HIE III were discharged. Conclusion: Incidence of HIE is very high .Some simple but important measures which will help to bring down this are: Early detection of high risk pregnancy and early referral to higher centre with proper facility, early detection of fetal distress, management of fetal distress, vigorous resuscitation at birth

Author(s): Niladri Sekhar Bhunia, Niru Prabha Saharia