Hematology and Blood Disorders

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Malignant Melanoma

Malignant Melanoma tumors start in the basal layer of the epidermis. In the event that melanoma is perceived and treated early, it is quite often treatable, however in the event that it is not, the disease can develop and spread to different parts of the body, where it gets to be tricky to treat and might be lethal. Any individual who has more than 100 moles is at more serious danger for melanoma. The main signs can show up in one or more atypical moles. Online Journals are scholarly and peer reviewed journals.  Journal of Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research facilitates the readers to go through a wide range of articles on melanoma.

Coloration of the skin, hair and eyes is controlled, in part, by MC1R. Polymorphisms in the MC1R gene determine the activity level of MC1R. Variants of the MC1R gene that lead to reduced MC1R function result in the production of predominantly the red/yellow pheomelanin pigment and fair skin that does not tan, and light eyes and hair. Fully functional MC1R stimulates production of the black/brown eumelanin.1 People harboring less functional variants of MC1R accumulate more mutations due to increased exposure of the nuclei to UV damage. If mutations accumulate in sensitive regions of the genome, then skin cancers can arise.Melanoma, a malignant tumor arising from melanocytes, is a rare disease, affecting only 22.1 out of 100,000 people in the US (Cancer statistics from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention). However, it is also a very deadly disease accounting for 75% of skin cancer deaths though it only accounts for 4% of skin cancer cases. In 2019, it is expected that 96,480 new cases of melanoma will be diagnosed, and 7,230 people will die in the US alone (American Cancer Society). This review will go over a brief history of melanoma, the major molecular defects that lead to melanoma. Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. This article will discuss the major advancements of melanoma diagnosis and treatment from antiquity to the present day.

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