Biology & Medicine Case Reports

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Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women with an estimated 46,470 new diagnoses and over 8000 deaths in 2011.Most strikingly, 5-year survival is currently significantly worse than 30 years ago (84% survival in 2006 vs. 88% survival in 1975), making endometrial cancer only one of two cancers with increased mortality .This is stark in comparison to breast and prostate cancer, where 5 year survival has substantially improved to >90% for breast and 100% for prostate cancer. For patients with early stage disease, hysterectomy is considered curative. By contrast, advanced stage and high grade endometrial cancer is lethal. Certain risk factors have been well characterized, such as menopausal status, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension and unopposed estrogen, though for some of these risk factors, such as obesity, the mechanisms by which this occurs are not completely understood .In this chapter, we describe the current practices for diagnosis and treatment of endometrial cancer and discuss emerging therapeutic strategies that are hoped to improve survival and reverse the alarming rising trend of this disease.

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