Journal of Food Science and Nutrition

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Review Article - Journal of Food Science and Nutrition (2021) Volume 4, Issue 9

A Review exclusively based on gut microbiome and effects of probiotic and prebiotic

Many humans and non-human animals including insects, are hosts to numerous microorganisms that resides in the gastrointestinal tract as well. This gut is one niche that human microbiota inhabits. Gut microbiota of the human has the largest number of bacteria and the greatest number of species compared to other area of the body. In this review we have discussed about the human gut microbiota, diversity of microorganisms and its colonization process along with mechanisms, different signalling methods, functions, disruptions of the gut microbiota and the consequent effects. Effects of different probiotics and prebiotics have also been discussed in this review. We have found that human gut is mainly dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The most tried and tested manner in which the gut microbiota composition may be influenced is through the use of live microbial dietary additions, as probiotics, they also facilitate smooth functions of the intestinal environment. Most commonly used probiotic strains are: Bifidobacterium, Lactobacilli, S. boulardii and B. coagulans. Prebiotics like FOS, GOS, XOS, Inulin; fructans are the most commonly used. They are mostly fibers that are non-digestible food ingredients and beneficially affect the host’s health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of some genera of microorganisms in the colon, generally Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria. Author(s): Abhishek Amit

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