Journal of Food Science and Nutrition

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1-845-208-9209

Research Paper - Journal of Food Science and Nutrition (2023) Volume 6, Issue 2

The impact of NaCl on germination parameters of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Mohammad Ali*

College of Agricultural Engineering, University of Sulaimani, IKR, Iraq

*Corresponding Author:
Mohammad Ali
College of Agricultural Engineering
University of Sulaimani, IKR, Iraq
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 31-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. AAJFSN-23-88353; Editor assigned: 02-Feb-2023, PreQC No. AAJFSN-23-88353(PQ); Reviewed: 16-Feb-2023, QC No. AAJFSN-23-88353; Revised: 21-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. AAJFSN-23-88353(R); Published: 28-Feb-2023, DOI:10.35841/aajfsn-6.2.166

Citation: Ali M. The impact of NaCl on germination parameters of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J Food Sci Nutr. 2023;6(2):166

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Food Science and Nutrition


Wheat, Climate change, Salinity, Growth, EC (dS/m).


Wheat is one of the most important crop plants worldwide with an annual production of about 736 million metric tons [1], but suffers significant grain yield losses due to soil salinity [2]. The impact of global climate change on increasing salinity has been confirmed by studies conducted by [3, 4], where they stated in their studies that increasing salinity level has negative effect on both human and plant life. Due to climate change, more arable lands are going to be depended on irrigation which causes rising of salinity in the soil in many arid and semi-arid areas including Iraq and Kurdistan Salinity has become a main abiotic stress due to high temperature that causes evaporation and lead to salt accumulation in soil and it is affecting plant growth [5].

Attak et al., [5], confirmed in their study, that the concentrations of salts have detrimental effects on Germination of seeds and plant growth that causes the delay of germination and growth of seedlings. The response of wheat to salt stress is genetically and physiologically controlled and may differ from one growth stage to another. Thus, a better understanding of these mechanisms and processes would help in the breeding programmers to enhance wheat production under salt stress [2]. Strategies to increase wheat production in the salt‐ affected areas (such as leaching and drainage), the cultivation of tolerant genotypes is recognized as the most effective way to overcome this limitations. The prerequisite is the identification of wheat genotypes with proven wide adaptation under saline conditions [2] and therefore identification of salt tolerance level is essential for each crop in saline areas to determine its possibility for adaptation

The EC is used as criteria for screening test of cultivars to salinity tolerance and it is necessary to be used to find reasonable soil for a required cultivar [6]. The objective of this study is to determine Araza,s salt Tolerance degree by comparing its DTC levels to Ec classifications [4,7]

The objective of this research

The objective of research is to study the effect of salinity on germination and growth parameters of Araz wheat cultivar, and determine its salt tolerance level as an individual cultivar. And to use the same method and criteria to determine of salt tolerance levels to others wheat cultivars, as well as to be used to determine salt tolerance levels to other crop cultivars.

Materials and Methods

The study was carried out in the laboratory of the department of Bio-Technology and Crop Science in the College of Agriculture Science at Sulayamani University where I used the seeds of wheat (Araz cultivar) which had been obtained from the laboratory of crop Science. The experiment carried out by preparing three levels of salt solution (0.01, 0.02 and 0.05 molL-1), which equivalents to 0.58, 1.17 and 2.92 gL-1 of NaCl respectively in sterilized water as well as in control.

After the obtained seeds were sterilized in 70% diluted Ethanol solution for 2 minutes then they were washed with sterilized water. Seeds were put in Petri dishes (10 seeds per Petri dish) containing filter paper. (Whatman No.1) and were added 10 ml of salt solutions (0.01,0.02 and 0.05 molL-1). The seeds in dishes were covered with filter papers to prevent pollution and evaporation until they began to germinate in 20- 25 ° C and humidity degrees 50-60%. After germination, the filter papers removed and then in 10 days were examined for the effects of these concentrations levels on seed percentage germination(SPG), germination speed(GS), seed water uptake and salt tolerance as well as radical and plumule were tested for growth by measuring length of radical and Plumule and their dry and fresh weight. The dry weight was measured after drying at 65ºC for 48h. SPG %= (Number of germinated seeds/number of cultivated seeds) × 100 [8].

GS = n1/d1+n2/d2+n3/d3+ [9].


n = number of germinated seeds, d= number of days. Water uptake%= (W2-W1/W1) × 100

W1 = Initial weight of seed

W2 = Weight of seed after absorbing water in a particular time ………………......................... (Mehmet and Kaya, 2006) [8].

Salt tolerance=Particular treatment/Germination/Growth in control*100 …………............................…. (Oyiga, 2016) [2].

Experimental design and statistical analysis

The experiment was carried out as a completely randomized design with three replications per treatment, and the results were analyzed statistically through one way ANOVA using (XLSTAT) program, and all possible comparisons among the means were conducted following Duncan multiple range test at significant level of (0.01).



(Table 1) shows, that the control treatment exceeded the rest in the character of germination percentage, while there were no significant differences between the control and the concentration of 0.01molL-1, and the lowest germination percentage showed by 0.05molL-1. But the difference of germination percentage between 0.01molL-1 and 0.02 molL- 1 was not significant. Both, germination speed and salt tolerance in the control treatment exceed the other treatments, however, there are highly significant differences between other concentrations 0.01., 0.02, and 0.05molL

Salt concentrations molL-1 Germination Percentage % Germination speed (seed/day) Salt tolerance (%) Seed water uptake
control 96.667 a 1.867 a 108.333 a 40.270 a
0.01 81.667 b 1.667 b 74.400 b 39.137 a
0.02 71.333 b 1.467 c 53.333 c 37.150 b
0.05 36.667 c 0.500 d 47.00 c 32.887 c

Table 1. Feeding Indicators for children aged six to 23 months

1. Control treatment of seed water uptake % exceeded the concentrations of 0.02 molL-1and 0.05molL-1, while there was no difference between control treatment and salt concentration 0.01molL-1.


Results in (Table 2) shows, that control Treatment exceeded all salt solution treatments 0.01,0.02 And 0.05 molL-1 for the length of the radicle, length of plumule and dry weight of radicle. The character of the fresh weight for radicle, the treatment of control exceeded only the concentration of 0.05molL-1, while there was no significant difference between control and concentrations 0.01 and 0.02molL-1, but on the other hand there was no significant difference between concentrations 0.01molL-1, 0.02molL-1and 0.05 mol/L-1. In addition, the character of fresh weight for plumule the treatment of control exceeded the other treatments except for the concentration 0.01 molL-1, and there was no significant difference between concentrations 0.02molL-1and 0.05molL- 1.The final character, dry weight for plumule the treatment of control exceeded all the other treatments, but there were no significant difference between concentration 0.01molL- 1 and 0.02molL-1, while they surpasses the concentration 0.05molL-1.

Salt concentrations Length of Radicle Length of Plumule Fresh weight of Radicle Dry weight of Radicle Fresh weight of Plumule Dry weight of Plumule (gm)
molL -1 (cm) (cm) (gm) (gm) (gm)
control 8.067 a 6.900 a 0.068 a 0.006 a 0.059 a 0.007 a
0.01 5.267 b 4.600 b 0.041 ab 0.005 b 0.044 a 0.005 b
0.02 3.133 c 2.767 c 0.037 ab 0.003 c 0.025 b 0.004 b
0.05 1.900 c 1.767 c 0.026 b 0.002 c 0.016 b 0.003 c

Table 2. Feeding Indicators for children aged six to 23 months


There are a rare researches have been done in both Iraq / Kurdistan regarding the effects of salinity on cultivated crops and also very rare studies about individual crop varieties salt tolerance degree /level. However, we realized in the study, the higher salt level the more significant effects, particularly between 0.01molL-1 and 0.05 molL-1, but what is concerning the fresh weight of radicle there are no significant difference between salt levels, and explanation for this is, the fresh radicles contain water which reduce the effect of salt in relation to dry weight of radicle (gm). In regard to [7], we can realize that, wheat cv. Araz has less salt tolerance in compare with durum wheat. Wheat cv. Araz is significantly affected by 0.05 mol/L which approximately answer to 3000 TDS which is equivalent to 1.5-3 EC 0.75-1.50dS/m that is cv. Araz is not tolerating. Therefore, it is recommended, cultivation of cv. Araz in a soil, where EC is between (0.75- 1.50 dS/m).

Conflict of Interest

Author do not have any possible conflicts of interest.


  2. Oyiga BC, Sharma RC, Shen J, et al. Identification and characterization of salt tolerance of wheat germplasm using a multivariable screening approach. J Agron Crop Sci. 2016 ;202(6):472-85.
  3. Google Scholar

  4. Abderrahman WA, Bader TA, Kahn AU, et al. Weather modification impact on reference evapotranspiration, soil salinity and desertification in arid regions: a case study. J Arid Environ. 1991 ;20(3):277-86.
  5. Google Scholar

  6. Vineis P, Chan Q, Khan A. Climate change impacts on water salinity and health. Journal of epidemiology and global health. 2011;1(1):5-10.
  7. Atak M, Kaya MD, Kaya G, et al. Effects of NaCl on the germination, seedling growth and water uptake of triticale. Turkish  J Agric for Environ. 2006;30(1):39-47.
  8. Google Scholar

  9. Pessarakli M, Kopec DM. Screening various ryegrass cultivars for salt stress tolerance. J Food Agric Environ. 2009 ;7(3):4.
  10. Google Scholar

  11. Chavez C. Electrical Conductivity of Salt Concentration in the Soil. United States Department of Agriculture. Natural Resources Conservation Service.
  12. Atak M, Kaya MD, Kaya G, et al. Effects of NaCl on the germination, seedling growth and water uptake of triticale. Turkish J Agric for Environ. 2006;30(1):39-47.
  13. Google Scholar

  14. Czabator FJ. Germination value: an index combining speed and completeness of pine seed germination. J For Sci. 1962 ;8(4):386-96.
  15. Google Scholar

Get the App

Vizag Tech Summit