Commentary - Journal of Food Microbiology (2021) Volume 5, Issue 4
Salmonella: Common foodborne pathogens.
Janice Kinman *
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE
- Corresponding Author:
- Janice Kinman
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Sharjah
Accepted date: September 28, 2021
Foodborne illness is mainly caused by consuming a hazardous food and using contaminated utensils. It's estimated that between twenty-four and eighty-one million cases of foodborne symptom sickness occur annually within the United States, costing an accounting of between $5 billion and $17 billion in treatment and lost productivity.
Bacteria, viruses, and parasites are the sources of many gastrointestinal disorder cases mainly because of improper food handling. Some bacteria, in small amounts, don't seem to be harmful to most healthy adults because the human body is equipped to fight them off. The difficulty begins when they affected by harmful bacteria like Campylobacter and different harmful pathogens multiply and spread, which may happen due to mishandling of food. Foods that are contaminated might not look, taste, or smell any different from foods that are safe to eat. Food poisoning symptoms can develop in as little as a halfhour or over days after the infected food is consumed.
Salmonella is one of the most common bacteria responsible for food poisoning and causes the infection of salmonellosis. The gastrointestinal tracts of animals and men are the common sources of Salmonella. It is also commonly associated with high-protein foods such as meat, poultry, fish, and eggs. However, any meals that become contaminated and then held at unsuitable temperatures can lead to salmonellosis. Salmonella is destroyed at cooking temperatures above 125°F. The most important reasons for foodborne illness are Norovirus which was mostly found in fruits and vegetables. Contamination of cooked ingredients takes place from touch with surfaces or utensils that have been now no longer well washed after use with uncooked products. If Salmonella is found on raw or cooked ingredients, it can be controlled by storing them at temperatures below 40 degrees Fahrenheit.
Salmonellosis can arise through ingesting raw and undercooked eggs, undercooked poultry and meat, infected uncooked fruits and vegetables (such as sprouts and melons). It is also caused by the consumption of raw milk and different dairy products that are made with unpasteurized milk. It can be transmitted via contact with infected animals or infected food handlers who've not washed their hands after using the bathroom.
Salmonellosis is usually a brief illness with belly cramps and diarrhea that lasts four to seven days. In few people, diarrhea may be severe and may last longer. In general, children are more likely to get Salmonella than other age groups. Salmonella signs and symptoms are indistinct and can be caused by many illnesses. Most of people affected with this virus suffers with diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps.
There are more than 2,000 different kinds of salmonella microorganisms that cause humans to get ill. Certain antibiotics do not work against a number of those types. If the ill individual is going to the doctor, the doctor may order extra lab exams to look at the microorganisms inside the stool pattern to discover the form of salmonella. These statistics will help the doctor decide which antibiotic to use if the patient wants to be treated.
Most people with salmonella recover in four to seven days and do not need treatment. During the illness, the person needs to drink plenty of water to replace the fluids lost through diarrhea.
A person who has severe diarrhea or has been sick for more than a week needs to be hospitalized. In the hospital, he or she will be treated with intravenous (IV) fluids. Antibiotics can be used to treat infants, people over 65 years of age, people with weak immune systems (like cancer patients), and those who have severe diarrhea, high fever, and bacteria in their bloodstream.