Research Article - Journal of Mental Health and Aging (2022) Volume 6, Issue 1
The association between cognitive reserve and depressive mood in older inpatients: Gender and age differences.
Background: Evidence shows that Cognitive Reserve (CR) plays a protective role in neurological and acute/chronic diseases. Its effect on depressive mood, however, is still unclear, and is an issue that may be relevant in a hospital setting, since depressive mood has been associated with worse clinical outcomes. We aimed to explore the relationship between CR and depressive mood in older inpatients, including evaluation of gender- and age-related differences. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 86 inpatients aged ≥65 years with a Mini-Mental State Examination ≥ 15. Participants underwent a multidimensional evaluation that included measuring CR with the Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq), which is divided into three sections (Education, Working Activity and Leisure Time). Depressive mood was assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). The relationship between CR and GDS was evaluated by linear regressions adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Significant associations between CR and GDS scores were found in the total sample (β=-0.03 [SE=0.02], p=0.047), especially in men (β=-0.05 [SE=0.02], p=0.005) and in individuals aged<85 years (β=-0.07 [SE=0.03], p=0.01). Of the individual CRI sections, CRI-Leisure Time was associated with GDS in the total sample (β=-0.03 [SE=0.01], p=0.03), in men (β=-0.03 [SE=0.01], p=0.03), and in participants <85 years (β=-0.05 [SE=0.02], p=0.01). Conclusions: CR seems to be inversely associated with depressive mood in older inpatients. This relationship is particularly marked for CR related to Leisure Time, which may be modifiable even in older age through social support and interaction.Author(s): Alessandra Coin, Alessandro Bubola, Enzo Manzato, Giuseppe Sergi, Caterina Trevisan, Maria Devita, Marianna Bizzotto