Perspective - Archives of Industrial Biotechnology (2022) Volume 6, Issue 3
Recombinant DNA techniques and methods for genetic modification in plant breeding methods.
Recombinant DNA refers to DNA molecules from two different species that are put into a host organism to create new genetic combinations useful in science, medicine, agriculture, and industry. Because the gene is at the centre of all genetics, laboratory geneticists' primary purpose is to extract, define, and modify genes. Although isolating a sample of DNA from a group of cells is very simple, locating a specific gene within this DNA sample is comparable to finding a needle in a haystack. Consider the fact that each human cell has about 2 metres (6 feet) of DNA. As a result, even a little tissue sample can contain thousands of kilometres of DNA. Recombinant DNA technology, on the other hand, has made it possible to isolate a single gene or other segment of DNA, allowing researchers to determine its nucleotide sequence, study its transcripts, mutate it in highly specific ways, and then reintroduce the modified sequence into a living organism. Continuous use of traditional breeding methods in a given species may reduce the gene pool from which cultivars are derived, making crops more susceptible to biotic and abiotic challenges and impeding future advancement. Several strategies for integrating exotic variation into elite germplasm without causing unwanted effects have been devised.Author(s): Kapuganti Foyer