As we known, dead and living bacterial infection represents one of the leading causes of disease and death, and as such, bacterial detection is an important step in managing infectious diseases. However, only living bacteria is detected by traditional methods could due to false negative results; especially there are dormant bacteria, which is really a challenge in the early year. In recent years, the development of microbiological testing undergoes a series of progress, from the traditional methods to molecular biological detection, which overcomes the difficulties of detecting the living, dead, and even dormant bacteria. Reviewed its developments, it can be seen that the detection is moving in more rapid, sensitive, precise, integration, and low-cost. Here, a diverse range of dead and living bacteria detection technology including various PCR-based, nanoparticles and spectroscopy technology-Based, dielectrophoresis technology-Based, and flow cytometry-based functional nucleic acids biosensors has been reported. While, a series of prospect to develop the methods for living and dead bacteria detection contact with more new technologies and materials including aptamer approaches, new nanomaterials, and others have been made.