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Desalination

Desalination may be a process that takes away mineral components from saline water. More generally, desalination refers to the removal of salts and minerals from a target substance, as in soil desalination, which is a problem for agriculture.

Saltwater is desalinated to supply water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. The by-product of the desalination process is brine. Desalination is employed on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the fashionable interest in desalination is concentrated on cost-effective provision of water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, it is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources.

Due to its energy consumption, desalinating sea water is usually more costly than water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and conservation . However, these alternatives aren't always available and depletion of reserves may be a critical problem worldwide. Desalination processes are usually driven by either thermal (in the case of distillation) or electrical (in the case of reverse osmosis) because the primary energy types.

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