Archives in Food and Nutrition

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Short Communication - Archives in Food and Nutrition (2022) Volume 5, Issue 1

Methods of nutrition and metabolism, medical therapy.

Brook Jhon*

Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, USA

*Corresponding Author:

Brook Jhon
Department of Medicine
Cornell University Medical College
New York
USA
E-mail: [email protected] engr.ucr.edu

Received: 28-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AAAFN-22-105; Editor assigned: 31-Jan -2022, Pre QC No. AAAFN -22-105(PQ); Reviewed: 14- Feb -2022, QC No. AAAFN -22-105; Revised: 17- Feb -2022, Manuscript No. AAAFN-22-105(R); Published: 24- Feb -2022, DOI: 10.35841/ AAAFN - 5.1.105

Citation: Jhon B. Methods of nutrition and metabolism, Medical Therapy. Arch Food Nutr. 2022;5(1):105

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Introduction

Clinical nutrition is largely concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and management of nutritional alterations in patients with chronic illnesses and disorders. In this context, clinical refers to the treatment of patients, including outpatients in clinics and private practise, as well as inpatients in hospitals. It basically comprises nutrition and dietetics as scientific fields. Clinical nutrition also tries to maintain a good energy balance while also giving patients with adequate levels of nutrients such protein, vitamins, and minerals [1].

Dietary needs and disease processes

Individuals often acquire the required nutrients for their bodies through normal daily meals, which allow the body to metabolise the foods appropriately. However, some situations, such as sickness, anxiety, or stress, may prohibit the body from acquiring sufficient nutrients alone through nutrition. To address the hole left by the unique ailment, nutritional supplements specifically developed for their exact condition may be necessary. Medical nutrition is one way to do this [2].

Methods of Nutrition

If feasible, oral administration is the recommended method of feeding among the many routes of delivery. Enteral administration (through nasogastric feeding) and intravenous delivery are two options (in parenteral nutrition).

Clinical malnutrition

Malnutrition has causes, epidemiology, and therapy that are separate from malnutrition that is primarily connected to poverty in the field of clinical nutrition. The following are the most common causes of clinical malnutrition [3].

• Cachexia as a result of illnesses, accidents, or age • Ingestion problems, such as stroke, paresis, dementia, depression, and dysphagia

Iatrogenic factors, or the incapacity of a health care organisation to adequately compensate for causes of malnutrition, can further exacerbate clinical malnutrition [4].

Medical nutrition therapy

The use of specialist dietary services to treat a sickness, injury, or condition is known as medical nutrition treatment (MNT). The American Dietetic Association first used it in 1994 to better describe the nutrition treatment process. It entails a medical doctor or registered dietitian nutritionist assessing the client's nutritional condition and prescribing and monitoring treatment, which may include nutrition therapy, counselling, and the use of specialist nutrition supplements (RDN). MNT was first utilised as a dietary intervention by registered dietitians to prevent or treat various health issues that are caused or worsened by bad eating habits.

When provided by a physician or a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN), MNT reduces the chance of developing problems in pre-existing disorders like type 2 diabetes, as well as alleviates the impact of any existing conditions like high cholesterol. An inappropriate or poor diet can cause or exacerbate a variety of medical issues.

Administration

In most circumstances the use of Medical Nutrition is recommended within international and professional norms. It can play an important role in the treatment of acute and short-term illnesses. It can also play a vital role in sustaining patients over lengthy periods of time and even for a lifetime in some unique circumstances. Medical nutrition is intended to supplement rather than replace the use of medication treatments prescribed by physicians and other professional healthcare practitioners in the treatment of disease.

Unlike Medical Foods, which are defined by the United States Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration in their Medical Foods Guidance Documents & Regulatory Information guide as "a food that is used to treat or prevent an orphan disease [5].

References

  1. McClave SA, Snider HL, Spain DA. Preoperative issues in clinical nutrition. Chest. 1999;115(5):64S-70S.
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  3. Levine BS, Wigren MM, Chapman DS, et al. A national survey of attitudes and practices of primary-care physicians relating to nutrition: strategies for enhancing the use of clinical nutrition in medical practice. AJCN. 1993;57(2):115-9.
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  5. Klein S, Kinney J, Jeejeebhoy K, et al. Nutrition support in clinical practice: review of published data and recommendations for future research directions. Summary of a conference sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, and American Society for Clinical Nutrition. AJCN. 1997;66(3):683-706.
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  7. Cederholm T, Barazzoni RO, Austin P, et al. ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition. Clinical nutrition. 2017;36(1):49-64.
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  9. Volkert D, Beck AM, Cederholm T, et al. ESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition and hydration in geriatrics. Clinical nutrition. 2019;38(1):10-47.
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