Journal of Mental Health and Aging

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Commentary - Journal of Mental Health and Aging (2022) Volume 6, Issue 6

Evaluating mental health difficulties among HIV-positive adolescents

Nicholas Joshua *

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Nicholas Joshua
Department of Medicine and Surgery
Ladoke Akintola University of Technology
Ogbomoso, Nigeria
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 04-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. AAJMHA-22-81155; Editor assigned: 05-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. AAJMHA-22-81155 (PQ); Reviewed: 20-Nov-2022, QC No. AAJMHA-22-81155; Revised: 22-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. AAJMHA-22-81155 (R); Published: 29-Nov-2022, DOI: 10.35841/aajmha-6.6.129

Citation: Joshua N. Evaluating mental health difficulties among HIV-positive adolescents. J Ment Health Aging. 2022;6(6):129

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Abstract

Despite the expansion of antiretroviral medication, AIDS-related mortality among adolescents who are HIV-positive has increased by 50%. (ART). The increase in AIDS-related fatalities among teenagers likely has something to do with ART non-adherence, which has been linked to psychosocial and mental health issues. Ending the HIV epidemic depends on addressing the unique mental health needs of teenagers who are HIV positive. In Moshi, Tanzania, this cross-sectional study prospectively included 12 to 24 year old HIV positive adolescents. In addition to inquiries regarding adherence, home, school, and measures of stigma (Berger Stigma Scale), a systematic questionnaire was also given out. Depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), emotional/behavioral challenges (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and traumatic experiences/post-traumatic stress symptoms were all considered to be indicators of mental health (The University of California Los Angeles-post-traumatic stress disorder-Reaction Index).

Keywords

Chronic pain, Frailty, Bereavement, Socioeconomic, Loneliness.

Introduction

In people with HIV infection, depression is a common but largely undetected condition. A descriptive cross-sectional study of 113 patients with HIV infection evaluated the overall performance of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the depression identification questions suggested by the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) guidelines to find a method to detect depression in a non-specialized clinical setting. The doctor requested that the patients complete the HADS and asked the two screening questions that were recommended by the EACS recommendations. Semi-structured clinical interviews were conducted by a psychiatrist or psychologist to produce psychiatric diagnoses of depression (gold standard). The HADS-Depression (HADS-D) subscale's receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that the highest sensitivity and specificity were obtained between the cut-off [1].

Since youth who were perinatally infected with HIV (PHIV+) are now living into adulthood, they are more likely to experience emotional and behavioural issues. Even fewer studies on these issues have been done in sub-Saharan Africa than in low- and middle-income nations. The objectives of this study were to provide a quantitative description of emotional and behavioural issues in a group of South African youth who tested positive for the PHIV (n=78) in comparison to a group of demographically similar HIV-negative controls (n=30) and to identify correlates of emotional and behavioural issues. Participants from community and hospital-based clinics participated in a cross-sectional study that was conducted. The Child Behaviour Checklist was used to evaluate emotional and behavioural issues (CBCL). The demographic, biological, cognitive, and environmental correlations were evaluated using a variety of measurements [2].

The majority of drug users suffer from mental health issues. There are few research examining depression, suicidal thoughts, and their related factors among MMT users, despite the fact that methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is an effective and evidence-based treatment for opioid addiction. 648 MMT users were enlisted from six MMT clinics in Guangzhou, China, for this cross-sectional study. Face-to-face interviews conducted by professional interviewers were used to obtain the data. A total of 270 (42.7%) individuals showed probable depression (Depression Subscale of the Chinese Short Version of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-D), score 10) and 99 (15.3%) participants said they had considered suicide in the previous six months. All examined variables, including past drug use, social support, family support for MMT usage, and satisfaction with MMT services, were strongly correlated after controlling for important sociodemographic factors [3].

Black guys in the USA suffer disproportionately from HIV and gang-related violence. This study examined a sample of young Black men who were HIV-positive and had sex with men to see whether exposure to community violence was associated with psychological distress, drug use, sexual risk behaviours, or medication adherence (YBMSM) [4].

The data come from 98 YBMSM recruited from Chicago between the ages of 18 and 29 who completed questionnaires on their demographics, neighbourhood violent exposures, psychological distress, drug use, condom-free anal sex, and medication adherence. Youth reported experiencing victimisation and seeing many different sorts of violence throughout their lifetimes, and community violence exposure rates were high. YBMSM reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence had considerably higher rates, according to models in adjusted logistic regression analyses [5].

Conclusion

In especially in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, orphans and separated children (OSC) are a vulnerable population whose numbers are rising. Worldwide, over 153 million children have lost one or both of their parents, including 17 million who became orphans due to AIDS, and millions more have been kept apart from them. Younger orphans' sexual health and HIV-related risk behaviours become crucial factors for their general health as they enter adolescence. Importantly, their high prevalence of exposure to PTEs may increase OSC's risk for poor outcomes in terms of their sexual health. The Positive Outcomes for Orphans project monitored OSC at six sites in five low- and middle-income nations, including a convenience sample of non-OSC, as well as OSC who were randomly selected from family- and institution-based care. In this analysis, the 90-month.

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