Mini Review - Insights in Nutrition and Metabolism (2022) Volume 6, Issue 6
Discussion on lipids and lipoproteins.
Triglycerides and cholesterol cannot be transferred alone because they are soluble in proteins and cannot be delivered in water. The development and function of lipoproteins are facilitated by the complex particles known as lipoproteins, which have a central core made up of triglycerides and cholesterol esters that is surrounded by free cholesterol, phospholipids, and apolipoproteins. Based on their size, lipid makeup, and apolipoproteins, plasma lipoproteins can be categorised into seven different groups. While HDL is anti-atherogenic, chylomicron remnants, VLDL, IDL, LDL, and LP are all pro-atherogenic. Starting in the colon, food lipids are incorporated into chylomicrons to form the exogenous lipoprotein route. Lipoprotein lipase breaks down the triglycerides carried by chylomicrons in the circulation, releasing free fatty acids that are then broken down by muscle and adipose tissue and forming chylomicron remains. Remaining chylomicrons are then absorbed by the liver. The production of VLDL in the liver is the first step in the endogenous lipoprotein pathway. Lipoprotein lipase breaks down the triglycerides transported by VLDL in muscle and adipose tissue, releasing free fatty acids and resulting in the formation of IDL. The liver is the main site of absorption for the LDL receptor, which is where the IDL are primarily absorbed after being further converted to LDL.
Author(s): Pliotas Dahl