Journal of Cell Science and Mutations

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The retina is very vascularized and consists of varied sorts of cells that are precisely organized into three layers of neural cell bodies: (1) the outer nuclear layer (ONL) crammed with the nuclei of photoreceptors, (2) the inner nuclear layer (INL) housing the nuclei of bipolar, horizontal and most of the amacrine cells, also as (3) ganglion cell layer (GCL) including the nuclei of RGCs and a few displaced amacrine cells. additionally, axons and terminal endings of those retinal neural cells form two synaptic layers: the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and therefore the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Dual blood supply is present within the retina to support its daily metabolic demand: the choroidal vessels provide oxygen and nutrients to the photoreceptors located at the outer most layer of the retina while other inner retinal cells, like RGCs are nourished by the intra-retinal circulation. These retinal micro-vessels contain an inner lining of non-fenestrated endothelial cells surrounded by pericytes and glial processes. More importantly, all of those components are joined together by tight junctions so as to take care of the integrity of the blood retinal barrier. (Angela Ka Wai Lai, Zhong Jie Fu and Amy CY Lo- somatic cell Therapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity)."

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