Materials Science and Nanotechnology

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Heat Transfer

Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, conversion, use and exchange of thermal energy between physical systems. Heat transfer is classified into different mechanisms, such as thermal conduction, thermal convection, thermal radiation, and transfer of energy by phase changes. If there is a temperature difference between two systems heat flows from higher to lower systems. Heat transfer occurs in three ways: Conduction, Convection and Radiation. Both convection and conduction require matter to transfer heat. In other words, heat is transferred by conduction when electrons move from one atom to another or adjacent atoms vibrate against one another. Conduction is the most significant means of heat transfer within a solid or between solid objects in thermal contact. Fluids—especially gases—are less conductive.

Relevant Topics in General Science