Research and Reports in Immunology

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There are currently no drugs targeting these mutated channels in clinical trials. The article traces the evolution of various synthesis approaches and provides a comparison for overall yield efficiency. Amantadine hydrochloride is an antiviral drug used in prevention and treatment of influenza A infections. It has also been used for alleviating early symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Several methods for the preparation of Amantadine hydrochloride have been reported overall yields ranging from 50% to 52%. In this article, we describe procedure for the synthesis of Amantadine hydrochloride from N-(1-adamantyl)acetamide with an improved yield of 60%. The procedure was also optimized to reduce the use of toxic solvents and reagents, rendering it more environmentfriendly. The procedure can be considered as suitable for large-scale production of amantadine hydrochloride.

  • Dr. W. Jean Dodds,

    DVM Founder Hemopet, 11561 Salinaz Avenue Garden Grove, California, United States

The study of organisms or environmental conditions that have been rendered free of bacteria or contaminants or into which a known microorganism or contaminant has been introduced for research purposes is called Gnotobiotics.

It is the?science?involved with maintaining a?microbiologically?controlled?environment.

Gnotobiotic Models are developed since they have the potential to provide substantial insight into how the microbiome shapes its host?s response to drugs and vaccines.

For Gnotobiotic Model, gnotobiotes are developed.Typically gnotobiotic organisms are germ-free or gnotophoric (having only one contaminant).

Gnotobiotic animals (also "gnotobiotes" or "gnotobionts") are born in?aseptic?conditions, such animals are normally reared in a sterile or microbially-controlled laboratory environment, and they are only exposed to those microorganisms that the researchers wish to have present in the animal. These gnotobiotes are used to study the?symbiotic?relationships between an animal and one or more of the microorganisms that may inhibit its body.

This technique is important for microbiologists because it allows them to study only a select few symbiotic interactions at a time, whereas animals that develop under normal conditions may quickly acquire a?microbiota?that includes hundreds or thousands of unique organisms.

Such animals may also be used in animal production, especially in the rearing of pigs. After the Caesarean birth, these animals are introduced to their natural microflora in a stepwise fashion. This avoids undesired infections and leads to faster growth.

Germ-free animals are used in the study of?probiotic?research and other?animal research?requiring careful control of outside contaminants that can affect the experiment. They also exhibit defects in the?immune system.

As a part of this special issue researchers and scholars are invited to submit manuscripts on all aspects of Gnotobiotics research.

Submission Guidelines: The Journal follows a stringent single blind peer review process for all submitted manuscripts. We welcome manuscripts for the special issue till ?April, 2018?. The submitted manuscripts would be published by ?May, 2018. As the submission for the special issue would be limited in number & would be processed on a First come First Serve basis.

You may submit your paper online at or e-mail at [email protected]

This Special issue is being edited by:
Dr. W. Jean Dodds, DVM
Founder Hemopet, 11561 Salinaz Avenue
Garden Grove, California, United States

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