Rapid Communication - Research and Reports in Immunology (2023) Volume 6, Issue 2
Use of DNA Profiling in Paternity Testing and Medical Diagnosis
Department of Genomics & Immunoregulation, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
- *Corresponding Author:
- Maziar Divangahi
Department of Genomics & Immunoregulation
University of Bonn
Received:27-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AARRI-23-97310; Editor assigned: 30-Mar-2023,PreQC No.AARRI-23-97310(PQ); Reviewed:13-Apr-2023,QC No AARRI-23-97310; Revised:17-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. AARRI -23- 97310(R); Published:24-Apr-2023,DOI:10.35841/aarrgs-6.2.136
Citation: Divangahi M. Use of DNA profiling in paternity testing and medical diagnosis. Res Rep Immunol. 2023; 6(2):143
DNA profiling, also known as DNA fingerprinting or genetic profiling, is a scientific technique used to identify individuals based on their DNA profiles. It is a powerful tool in forensic science that has revolutionized criminal investigations and has been used to solve countless crimes. In this article, we will explore what DNA profiling is, how it works, and its applications in various fields.
What is DNA profiling?
DNA profiling is a technique used to analyze an individual's DNA to create a unique DNA profile that can be used to identify them. This technique uses highly sensitive equipment to analyze specific regions of DNA, known as short tandem repeats (STRs). STRs are highly variable, meaning that they differ significantly between individuals, even between close relatives..
The process of DNA profiling involves extracting DNA from a biological sample, such as blood, semen, or saliva, and then amplifying specific regions of the DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The amplified DNA is then separated and analyzed using a technique called gel electrophoresis. This produces a series of bands that represent the individual's DNA profile .
How does DNA profiling work?
DNA profiling works by analyzing specific regions of an individual's DNA, known as short tandem repeats (STRs). These regions are highly variable and differ between individuals, even between close relatives. The process of DNA profiling involves extracting DNA from a biological sample, such as blood, semen, or saliva, and then amplifying specific regions of the DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique.The amplified DNA is then separated and analyzed using a technique called gel electrophoresis [3,].
This produces a series of bands that represent the individual's DNA profile. The DNA profile is then compared to other DNA profiles in a DNA database to identify potential matches. Applications of DNA profiling. Forensic science: DNA profiling has revolutionized forensic science and has been used to solve countless crimes. DNA evidence can be used to link suspects to crime scenes or to exonerate innocent individuals who have been wrongly accused. DNA profiling has also been used to identify victims of disasters, such as plane crashes or natural disasters, where traditional methods of identification are not possible .
Paternity testing: DNA profiling is commonly used in paternity testing to determine the biological father of a child. This technique compares the DNA profiles of the child and the potential father to determine the probability of paternity. Medical diagnosis: DNA profiling can also be used for medical diagnosis, particularly in genetic diseases. Genetic testing can identify individuals who carry specific genes associated with genetic diseases, allowing for early intervention and treatment. Genealogy: DNA profiling is increasingly being used in genealogy to trace family ancestry and identify relatives. By comparing DNA profiles, individuals can identify relatives they may not have been aware of, and trace their family history back several generations. While DNA profiling has been an incredibly useful tool in forensic science, it is not without its controversies. One of the main controversies surrounding DNA profiling is the potential for misuse of genetic information. DNA profiling can reveal sensitive information about an individual's genetic makeup, such as their susceptibility to certain diseases or their family history. There is a concern that this information could be used by employers or insurance companies to discriminate against individuals. Another controversy surrounding DNA profiling is the potential for errors in analysis. While the technique is highly accurate, there is still a small chance of error, particularly in cases where the DNA sample is degraded or contaminated .
DNA profiling has been a game-changer in the field of forensic science and has found numerous applications in other fields such as paternity testing, medical diagnosis, and genealogy. DNA profiling is a highly accurate technique that allows for the identification of individuals based on their DNA profiles. However, there are still controversies surrounding its use, including concerns about the potential misuse of genetic information and the possibility of errors in analysis. Despite these controversies, DNA profiling remains a valuable tool for solving crimes and identifying individuals, and its continued development and refinement will undoubtedly have even greater impacts in the future.
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