Short Article - Journal of Clinical Respiratory Medicine (2023) Volume 7, Issue 2
The Role of Genetics in Tuberculosis Susceptibility and Treatment ResponseGunar Leu*
Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland
- *Corresponding Author:
- Gunar Leu
Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Allergology
Inselspital, Bern University Hospital
University of Bern, Switzerland
Received: 03-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AAJCRM-23-99108; Editor assigned: 06-Mar-2023, PreQC No. AAJCRM-23-99108(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Mar-2023, QC No. AAJCRM-23-99108; Revised: 23-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AAJCRM-23-99108(R); Published: 30-Mar-2023, DOI: 10.35841/aajcrm-7.2.143
Citation: Leu G. The role of genetics in tuberculosis susceptibility and treatment response. J Clin Resp Med. 2023;7(2):143
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB remains a major public health problem worldwide, with an estimated 10 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths reported in 2019. While the risk of TB is influenced by environmental and lifestyle factors, genetic factors also play a role in determining susceptibility to TB and response to treatment. Recent studies have identified several genes that are associated with an increased risk of developing TB, including genes involved in the immune response to the bacterium. For example, variants in the genes encoding the cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) have been shown to increase susceptibility to TB. Other studies have identified genes involved in the metabolism of anti-TB drugs, such as the cytochrome P450 enzymes, that can influence treatment response. Understanding the genetic basis of TB susceptibility and treatment response has important implications for the development of new TB treatments and vaccines. By identifying the specific genes and genetic pathways that are involved in TB, researchers can develop targeted therapies that are tailored to individual patients based on their genetic makeup. This personalized approach to TB treatment has the potential to improve treatment outcomes and reduce the risk of drug resistance.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection that mainly affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body such as the brain, kidneys, and bones. TB is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is transmitted from person to person through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. TB is one of the oldest and deadliest diseases known to mankind, and has been a major public health problem throughout history. The earliest evidence of TB dates back to around 4000 BCE in Egypt, where mummified bodies show signs of TB infection. TB has also been found in the bones of ancient Greek and Roman civilizations. However, TB became more widespread and deadly during the Industrial Revolution in Europe and North America, as crowded and unsanitary living conditions facilitated the spread of the disease. In the 19th century, TB was known as "consumption" due to its wasting effects on the body .
At the time, TB was the leading cause of death in Europe and the United States, and had a significant impact on art and literature, with many romanticizing the disease as a symbol of beauty and suffering. However, with the advent of germ theory and modern medicine, the understanding of TB improved, leading to the development of effective antibiotics in the 20th century, such as streptomycin, isoniazid, and rifampin. Despite these advances, TB remains a major public health problem worldwide, particularly in low- and middleincome countries where access to healthcare and resources is limited. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), TB is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide, with an estimated 10 million cases and 1.4 million deaths reported in 2019. TB is also a leading cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS, as the two diseases are closely linked. Today, TB is a major focus of global health initiatives, with efforts to improve TB diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. These efforts include the development of new TB drugs and vaccines, the expansion of TB diagnostic and treatment services, and the implementation of public health policies and programs to control the spread of TB .
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health problem, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), TB is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide, and the leading cause of death from a single infectious agent, surpassing HIV/AIDS. In 2019, there were an estimated 10 million cases of TB worldwide, and 1.4 million deaths due to TB, with the majority of cases occurring in low- and middleincome countries. The impact of TB on public health is multifaceted and complex. TB is not only a medical problem but also a social and economic one, as it disproportionately affects marginalized and vulnerable populations, including people living with HIV/AIDS, prisoners, migrants, and refugees. The burden of TB is also influenced by various social determinants of health, such as poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, and limited access to healthcare .
TB can have a devastating impact on individuals, families, and communities, causing illness, disability, and death. TB can also lead to significant economic losses, including lost productivity, treatment costs, and long-term disability. TB has been estimated to cause a global economic loss of US$ 3 trillion by 2030 if current trends persist. In addition to its direct impact on health and well-being, TB also contributes to the spread of drug-resistant strains of TB, which are more difficult and expensive to treat. The emergence of drugresistant TB poses a significant threat to global health security, as it undermines the effectiveness of current TB control programs and requires innovative approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. To address the global burden of TB, the WHO has set ambitious targets for TB control and elimination, including reducing TB incidence by 90% and TB deaths by 95% by 2035. Achieving these targets will require a comprehensive and sustained effort from governments, international organizations, civil society, and the private sector, to ensure that all people affected by TB have access to high-quality and affordable TB diagnosis, treatment, and care, and to address the social determinants of health that contribute to TB transmission and progression .
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem that affects people in all regions of the world, but the burden of the disease is not evenly distributed. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 95% of TB cases and deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in Africa, Asia, and the Western Pacific regions. The highest burden of TB is seen in countries with high rates of poverty, malnutrition, and overcrowding, as well as limited access to healthcare. TB is closely associated with various social determinants of health, which are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, and which influence their health outcomes. Social determinants of health that are linked to TB include poverty, malnutrition, overcrowding, and limited access to healthcare, education, and social services. Poverty is a major risk factor for TB, as it is often associated with malnutrition, which weakens the immune system and makes individuals more susceptible to TB infection. Poverty is also associated with overcrowding, which increases the risk of TB transmission, particularly in urban slums and informal settlements. In addition, poverty often leads to limited access to healthcare, including TB diagnosis and treatment services, which can result in delayed diagnosis, treatment failure, and the development of drug-resistant TB .
Other social determinants of health that are associated with TB include migration and displacement, which can increase the risk of TB transmission and access to healthcare, particularly among refugees and asylum seekers. TB is also associated with stigmatization and discrimination, particularly against marginalized and vulnerable populations, such as people living with HIV/AIDS, prisoners, and people who use drugs. To address the social determinants of health that contribute to the global burden of TB, a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach is needed, which includes not only medical interventions, but also social and economic interventions. This includes improving access to healthcare, education, and social services, addressing poverty and inequality, and promoting social inclusion and human rights. Such efforts can help to reduce the burden of TB and improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities affected by this disease.
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