Commentary - Insights in Nutrition and Metabolism (2022) Volume 6, Issue 3
Omega-3 fatty acids and its role in treating hyperlipidemia
Department of Medicine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Maheshwar Tokas
Department of Medicine
Aligarh Muslim University
Uttar Pradesh, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 22-Apr-2022, Manuscript No. AAINM-22-61546; Editor assigned: 27-Apr-2022, PreQC No. AAINM-22-61546(PQ); Reviewed: 11-May-2022, QC No. AAINM-22-61546; Revised: 16-May-2022, Manuscript No. AAINM-22-61546(R); Published: 23-May-2022, DOI:10.35841/aainm-6.3.112
Citation: Tokas M. Omega-3 fatty acids and its role in treating hyperlipidemia. Insights Nutr Metab. 2022;6(3):112
Omega-3 unsaturated fats are unsaturated fats with something like one twofold security situated between the third and fourth omega end carbon. As of now, the three most clinically pertinent omega-3 polyunsaturated unsaturated fats (PUFAs) are α-linolenic corrosive (ALA), eicosapentaenoic corrosive (EPA), and docosahexaenoic corrosive (DHA). Oils containing these unsaturated fats start in plant sources and can be found in fish, fish items, seeds, nuts, green verdant vegetables, and beans.
Presently, the FDA has just supported the utilization of four solution omega-3 unsaturated fats items: icosapent ethyl, omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters, omega-3-carboxylic acids, and omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters A. Omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters, omega-3-carboxylic acids, and omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters A contain both EPA and DHA, though icosapent ethyl contains ethyl esters of EPA as it were. The items referenced above are endorsed for grown-ups (≥18 years old) with exceptionally high fatty substances (≥ 500 mg/dl) as an assistant to count calories to diminish fatty substance levels and decrease cardiovascular occasions . These remedy OM3FA items have likewise been suggested in adjunctive treatment in mix with statins to give an improved decrease of the complete cholesterol/high-thickness lipoprotein cholesterol in contrast with statin alone. Notwithstanding, a few examinations have encouraged doctors to tread carefully while recommending a statin/DHA OM3FA mix because of the chance of expanded low-thickness lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. DHA containing OM3FA can be changed to EPA-just icosapent ethyl that isn't related with expanded LDL.
It is critical to take note of that while these solution OM3FA items are the main FDA endorsed items for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia, continuous examination is at present exploring the meaning of OM3FAs and their promising job in the treatment of conditions and infirmities recorded beneath:
• Cardiovascular disease
• Hypertriglyceridemia (200 to 499 mg/dL)
• Type 2 diabetes
• Alzheimer disease and dementia
• Visual and neurological/brain development
• Maternal health during pregnancy and child health
• Conditions benefiting from prebiotics
• Heart failure
• Intervertebral disc degeneration
• Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
• Maternal depression
• Menopausal night sweats
• Rheumatoid arthritis
• Periodontal disease
The component of activity of Omega-3 Fatty Acids to bring down fatty oils (FDA supported use) is as yet not completely known however is remembered to bring down fatty substances by stifling lipogenic quality articulation, expanding beta-oxidation of unsaturated fats, expanding the outflow of lipo-protein-lipase (LPL), and affecting absolute body lipid accumulation .
Omega-3 Fatty Acids stifle lipogenic quality articulation by diminishing the statement of sterol administrative component restricting protein 1c, repressing phosphatidic corrosive phosphatase, and Acyl-CoA:1,2-diacylglycerol acyltransferase (NGAT). Sterol administrative component restricting proteins (Srebp's) are layer bound compounds that, when severed, travel to the core to translate chemicals associated with cholesterol, LDL, and unsaturated fat blend. At the point when an eating routine is high in omega-3 unsaturated fats, the SREBPs (especially 1c) are not enacted in light of negative criticism restraint and brings down SREBP blend and the cholesterol combining compounds that it manages; FPP synthase (farnesyl diphosphate synthase) and HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase).
Beta oxidation is the organic pathway utilized in the body to separate fat and converts it into energy. OM3FAs decline the degree of triacylglycerides in the body by expanding the pace of beta-oxidation by acting explicitly on carnitine acetyltransferase 1 (CAT 1) and Acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Carnitine acetyltransferase acts to adjust unsaturated fat substrates to enter the inward mitochondrial film by means of the carnitine-acylcarnitine movement appropriately. Afterward, it is switched over completely to Acyl-CoA, an antecedent substrate to Acetyl-CoA used to make ATP in different metabolic pathways. Furthermore, EPA additionally by implication increments beta-oxidation by easing back input hindrance. EPA hinders Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which is the protein that catalyzes the amalgamation of malonyl CoA, a solid inhibitor of CAT1. By diminishing how much malonyl CoA created, CAT1 will have expanded action and utilize more triacylglycerides for beta-oxidation. OM3FAs have likewise been displayed to diminish the responsiveness of CAT1 to malonyl CoA.
Dose: The FDA-supported utilizations of omega-3 unsaturated fats for grown-ups (≥18 years old) with hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dl) as an assistant to eat less carbs and practice are as per the following :
• Icosapent ethyl is regulated as cases with a day to day portion of 4 g/day taken as two, 2-gram containers two times every day with suppers.
• Omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters are regulated as cases with a day to day portion of 4 g/day taken as 4 containers once per day with suppers or two cases double a day with dinners.
• Omega-3-carboxylic acids are controlled as containers with an everyday portion of 2 g/day taken as 2 cases one time each day or 4 g/day taken as 4 containers one time per day. Clinical preliminary organization was regardless of dinners.
• Omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters A are controlled as containers with an everyday portion of 4 g/day taken as 4 cases once per day with suppers or two containers two times per day with dinners.
Metabolism: Humans don't have the compounds expected to combine Omega-3 Fatty Acids; in this way, they are viewed as fundamental unsaturated fats since they should be acquired from the eating routine. OM3FAs are essentially consumed in our eating regimens as fish and establish sources however can likewise be consumed through solution OM3FA products. Alpha-linoleic corrosive (ALA) is a typical OM3FA found in seeds and nuts and can be changed over completely to both DHA and EPA inside the body. Be that as it may, research has observed the change of DHA from ALA is especially low, proposing the significance of direct dietary admission of DHA . OM3FAs might be available in a few structures, for example, triacylglycerols, free unsaturated fats (FFA), phospholipids, and ethyl esters. Icosapent ethyl, omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters, and omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters A are all in the ethyl ester structure, though; omega-3-carboxylic acids are in the free unsaturated fat structure.
Adverse effects of omega-3 fatty acids
Antagonistic responses seen in clinical preliminaries for every one of the FDA endorsed OM3FA items are as per the following :
• Icosapent ethyl: arthralgia and oropharyngeal torment.
• Omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters: eructation, dyspepsia, taste depravity, blockage, GI jumble, regurgitating, expanded ALT/AST, pruritus, rash.
• Omega-3-carboxylic acids: Diarrhea, queasiness, stomach agony or uneasiness, eructation, stomach distension, clogging, retching, weariness, nasopharyngitis, arthralgia, dysgeusia.
• Omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters A: Eructation, dyspepsia, taste depravity, stoppage, GI jumble, heaving, expanded ALT/AST, pruritus, rash.
Monitoring of the omega-3 fatty acids as medication
It is suggested that the medical services supplier screen the immediate low-thickness lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol for patients taking the DHA-containing items omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters, omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters A, and omega-3-carboxylic acids because of DHA's relationship with an expansion in LDL cholesterol .
In patients with dyslipidemia, icosapent ethyl is a choice since it has no relationship with expanded LDL cholesterol. For patients with hepatic debilitation, observing of the AST and ALT ought to likewise be finished. In patients with paroxysmal or persevering atrial fibrillation, the solution items containing omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters and omega-3-corrosive ethyl esters A have a potential relationship with expanded repeats of indicative atrial fibrillation or shudder.
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