Commentary - Journal of Nutrition and Human Health (2022) Volume 6, Issue 1
Nutritional factors from infancy to toddlerhood, bone development.
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC, Australiaica
- *Corresponding Author:
- Allice Emma
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition
Deakin University, Burwood
Received: 29-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. AAJNHH-22-101; Editor assigned: 02-Jan-2022, Pre QC No. AAJNHH-22-101(PQ); Reviewed: 14-Jan-2022, QC No. AAJNHH-22-101; Revised: 17-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AAJNHH-22-101(R); Published: 24-Jan-2022, DOI: 10.35841/aajnhh- 6.1.101
Citation: Emma A. Nutritional factors from infancy to toddlerhood, bone development. J Nutr Hum Health. 2022;6(1): 101
Over the last decade, researchers have gained a better understanding of the factors that drive bone mineral accretion in healthy youngsters. Associations among both nutrition and genetics and nutrition and physical activity are examined, as well as the link between early diet and bone health later in life. Preterm newborns have a higher risk of osteopenia, and while using a high-mineral food may lowered the risk of osteopenia in these babies, it hasn't totally eradicated it. Maternal nutritional condition during pregnancy, method of new-born feeding, calcium and phosphorus content of infant formula, introduction of weaning foods, and diet during the toddler and preschool years are all dietary factors that may contribute to bone accretion in infants and toddlers. Gestational new-borns have a higher risk of osteopenia, and while using a high-mineral formula has lowered the risk of osteopenia in these babies, it hasn't completely erased that one. Despite greater serum parathyroid hormone, the timing of the introduction of weaning meals has no effect on bone accretion. These early dietary influences on later bone health have uncertain lengthy consequences .
During gestation, the mother's diet
The association between maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and newborn outcomes has been studied in several epidemiological studies and clinical trials. Despite countless studies demonstrating a link between maternal vitamin D deficiency and newborn calcium homeostasis, no research has shown a link between neonatal bone mineral content (BMC)3 and maternal vitamin D status. A newborns of those that were randomised to calcium supplementation had higher total body mass than those whose moms were in the lowest quintile of calcium intake .
Premature birth and a reduction in intrauterine growth
During last trimester of pregnancy, the bulk of calcium is accumulated, and this rise in foetal demand is met by an increase in maternal intestinal calcium absorption. Premature babies have a lower total body BMC than term babies because of the significant bone accretion that occurs during the last trimester . Although using a slightly elevated preterm formula has lowered the incidence of osteopenia in this high-risk group, it has not completely eliminated it. A aetiology of preterm infants' long-term bone shortage is unknown, while lower physical activity levels, together with a corresponding drop in bone loading, have been postulated as a possible factor .
Formula compared human milk
The total body BMC of maternal milk-only babies was lower than that of baby milk neonates. The reduced bone accretion observed in human milk-fed newborns is assumed to be due to both the low vitamin D content of human milk and the decreasing phosphorus concentrations with increasing lactation time. Because increasing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations induce bone growth, low vitamin D intake should be linked to lower BMD. The lower bone accretion in breast-fed infants compared to formula-fed infants may be due to the phosphorus content of human milk .
Associations between nutrients, genetics, and physical activity
If genes that influence bone also influence early growth, higher skeletal loading may result in early disparities in bone size. Polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) have been linked to early puberty. This may be sex-dependent, and those fast growth variances may inevitably lead to BMD inequalities. In the impact on bone development and mineralization, nutrients may interact with other environmental factors.
Early dietary impacts on bone mineral accretion do exist, too. Recent research suggests links between childhood BMD and both newborn vitamin D supplementation and nursing duration. Whereas these findings are intriguing, it is critical that they be confirmed by larger research with diverse study methods.
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