Research and Reports in Immunology

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (202) 780-3397

Short Communication - Research and Reports in Immunology (2023) Volume 6, Issue 4

Mycobacterial vaccines: progress and prospects for prevention

Tiago Justo*

University of Oxford

*Corresponding Author:
Tiago Justo
Department of Physiology
University of Oxford,
Dundee, UK

Received:2-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. AARRI-23-108395; Editor assigned:30-Jul-2023, PreQC No. AARRI-23-108395 (PQ); Reviewed:14-Aug-2023, QC No. AARRI-23-108395; Revised:18-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. AARRI-23-108395 (R); Published:25-Aug-2023, DOI:10.35841/ aaaa-6.4.162

Citation: Justo T. Mycobacterial vaccines: progress and prospects for prevention. Res Rep Immunol. 2023; 6(4):162

Visit for more related articles at Research and Reports in Immunology


Mycobacterial diseases, caused primarily by the Mycobacterium genus, are a diverse group of infections affecting millions of people worldwide. The most well-known member of this genus is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Besides TB, other mycobacterial infections such as leprosy, non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases, and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pose significant health challenges in both developed and developing nations. This article delves into the intricacies of mycobacterial diseases, highlighting their diagnosis, treatment, and the ongoing efforts to combat these persistent and elusive infections. Tuberculosis remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases globally, with an estimated 10 million new cases reported annually [1,2].

The disease primarily affects the lungs but can also spread to other organs. TB spreads through airborne droplets when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, making it highly contagious. Overcrowding, poor living conditions, and compromised immune systems increase the risk of TB transmission. The diagnosis of TB typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, chest X-rays, and sputum examination for acid-fast bacilli. The treatment for TB relies on a long-term course of antibiotics, usually a combination of multiple drugs to prevent drug resistance. However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has complicated the treatment landscape, requiring even more potent and expensive medications. Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although it is less common than TB, leprosy continues to affect many individuals in regions with inadequate access to healthcare. Leprosy mainly affects the skin, peripheral nerves, mucous membranes, and eyes. The diagnosis of leprosy is primarily clinical, relying on the presence of characteristic skin lesions and nerve involvement. Multidrug therapy (MDT) is the standard treatment for leprosy, and early diagnosis is crucial to prevent severe disabilities. Despite the availability of effective treatment, social stigmas and misconceptions about the disease persist, leading to delayed diagnosis and challenging the goal of eradication [3,4].

NTM diseases are caused by various mycobacterial species that are not M. tuberculosis or M. leprae. These infections can occur in both immuno compromised and immuno competent individuals. NTM can be found in various environmental sources, including water and soil, making them challenging to eradicate completely. The diagnosis of NTM diseases is often complex due to the diverse range of species and the overlap of symptoms with other respiratory conditions. Accurate identification of the specific NTM species is crucial as the treatment may vary significantly between different strains. Treatment of NTM diseases often requires prolonged courses of multiple antibiotics, and treatment response can be variable. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of NTM species that predominantly affect individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or underlying lung conditions like bronchiectasis. MAC infections can lead to severe pulmonary and disseminated diseases. The diagnosis of MAC infections involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and microbiological tests. The treatment for MAC infections is often challenging due to antibiotic resistance and patient immuno compromised status. Therapeutic regimens may include a combination of antibiotics tailored to the specific MAC species and patient immune function[5].


Mycobacterial diseases continue to pose significant public health challenges worldwide. The burden of tuberculosis, leprosy, NTM diseases, and MAC remains high, especially in regions with limited access to healthcare and poor living conditions. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential for initiating appropriate treatment, which often involves prolonged courses of antibiotics. Research and development efforts are ongoing to improve diagnostics, create new drugs, and enhance vaccines to combat mycobacterial infections. Global collaboration and initiatives are crucial to address the social and economic factors that contribute to the spread of these diseases and to promote awareness and education to dispel stigmas associated with mycobacterial infections. As we continue to advance in our understanding of mycobacterial diseases, we can hope for improved strategies in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, moving closer to a world free from the burden of these persistent infections.


  1. Brown JL. . The Association between cigarette smoking, virologic suppression, and CD4+ lymphocyte count in HIV-infected Russian women. AIDS Care. 2018; 29:1102–06.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar,Cross Ref

  3. Conrad Kabali DM. Recent cigarette smoking and HIV disease progression: no evidence of an association. AIDS Care. 2012; 23:947–56.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar,Cross Ref

  5. Lifson AR. Prevalence and factors associated with use of khat: a survey of patients entering HIV treatment programs in Ethiopia
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Soboka M. Khat use in people living with HIV: a facility-based cross-sectional survey from South West Ethiopia. BMC Psychiatry. 2015; 15:1–7.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Moss C. Alcohol use disorders among people living with HIV / AIDS in Southern Brazil: prevalence, risk factors, and biological markers outcomes. BMC Infect Dis. 2017; 17:1–8.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App