Insights in Nutrition and Metabolism

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1-845-208-9209

Commentary - Insights in Nutrition and Metabolism (2022) Volume 6, Issue 5

Deficiency of vitamin D and its etiology, pathophysiology, treatment and management

George Sylvester*

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, United States

*Corresponding Author:
George Sylvester
Department of Food Science and Nutrition
University of Minnesota, United States
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 03-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. AAINM-22-72868; Editor assigned: 05-Sep-2022, PreQC No. AAINM-22-72868(PQ); Reviewed: 17--Sep-2022, QC No. AAINM-22-72868; Revised: 21-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. AAINM-22-72868(R); Published: 27-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.35841/aainm-6.5.122

Citation: Sylvester G. Deficiency of vitamin D and its etiology, pathophysiology, treatment and management. Insights Nutr Metab. 2022;6(5):122

Visit for more related articles at Insights in Nutrition and Metabolism

Abstract

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin utilized by the body for development and maintenance by increasing the absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate. A circulating level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D more prominent than 30 ng/mL is expected to keep a solid degree of vitamin D. Lack of vitamin D can give rise to a variety of issues, most remarkably rickets in kids and osteoporosis in adults. The stronghold of milk with vitamin D during the 1930s was successful in annihilating rickets in the world. In any case, vitamin D lack is currently more pervasive than in the past and ought to be checked in high-risk populations. Many clashing investigations are presently showing a relationship between lack of vitamin D and malignant growth, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and depression.

 

Keywords

Deficiency, Hypocalcaemia, Calcitriol, Osteomalacia.

Introduction

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a significant part in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Lack of vitamin D can lead to osteomalacia and rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults.

Etiology

Dermal synthesis and dietary admission are the significant sources of ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol, the two of which are changed over completely to 25-hydroxy-nutrient D2 and 25-hydroxy-nutrient D3 separately in the liver by the chemical hepatic protein 25-hydroxylase. Both 25-OH-D2 and 25-OHD3 are then changed over completely to the most dynamic type of vitamin D by the chemical 1-alpha-hydroxylase in the kidneys [1]. This dynamic 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D increments gastrointestinal assimilation of calcium and bone resorption and diminishes renal discharge of calcium and phosphate. Lack of vitamin D can result from lot causes.

Types of causes of vitamin D

Decreased dietary admission and additionally assimilation: Certain malabsorption conditions like celiac illness, short entrail disorder, gastric detour, provocative gut sickness, persistent pancreatic inadequacy, and cystic fibrosis might prompt lack of vitamin D. Lower vitamin D admission orally is more pervasive in the older populace [2].

Decreased sun exposure: Around half to 90% of vitamin D is assimilated through the skin by means of daylight while the rest comes from the eating routine. Twenty minutes of daylight day to day with more than 40% of skin presented is expected to forestall lack of vitamin D. Cutaneous blend of vitamin D decays with maturing. Darker looking individuals have less cutaneous vitamin D blend. Diminished openness to the sun as found in people who are systematized, or have drawn out hospitalizations can likewise prompt lack of vitamin D. Viable sun openness is diminished in people who use sunscreens reliably [3].

Decreased endogenous synthesis: People with chronic liver infection, for example, cirrhosis can have defective 25-hydroxylation leading lack of active vitamin D. Defect in 1-alpha 25-hydroxylation can be visible in hyperparathyroidism, renal failure and 1-alpha hydroxylase deficiency.

Epidemiology

Lack of vitamin D is a worldwide general medical problem. Around 1 billion individuals overall have lack of vitamin D, while half of the population has vitamin D inadequacy [4]. The pervasiveness of patients with lack of vitamin D is most elevated in the older, obese patients, nursing home occupants, and hospitalized patients. The prevalence of lack of vitamin D was 35% higher in obese subjects regardless of latitude and age. In the United States, around half to 60% of nursing home residents and hospitalized patients had lack of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency might be connected with populaces who have higher skin melanin content and who utilize broad skin inclusion, especially in Middle Eastern nations. In the United States, 47% of African American newborn children and 56% of Caucasian babies have lack of vitamin D, while more than 90% of newborn children in Iran, Turkey, and India have lack of vitamin D. In the adult populace, 35% of adults in the United States are vitamin D lacking while more than 80% of grown-ups in Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh are Vitamin D insufficient. In the United States, 61% of the elderly population is vitamin D lacking while 90% in Turkey, 96% in India, 72% in Pakistan, and 67% in Iran were vitamin D deficient.

Pathophysiology

Vitamin D plays a critical part in calcium homeostasis and bone digestion. With persistent or potentially serious deficiency of vitamin D, a decrease in gastrointestinal calcium and phosphorus absorption leads hypocalcemia leading secondary hyperparathyroidism. This secondary hyperparathyroidism then, at that point, leads to phosphaturia and sped up bone demineralization. This can additionally bring about osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults and osteomalacia and rickets in children.

Treatment/management

A few arrangements of Vitamin D are accessible. Vitamin D3, when contrasted and vitamin D2, has been demonstrated to be more solid in accomplishing ideal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, consequently leaning toward vitamin D3 as a treatment of decision.

Prevention of deficiency of vitamin D: Adults under 65 years old who don't have all year compelling sun exposure will consume 600 to 800 IU of lack of vitamin D3 every day to prevent deficiency. Adults 65 years old or more will consume 800 to 1000 IU of vitamin D3 day to day to prevent deficiency and to lessen the risk of fractures and falls [5].

Management of deficiency of vitamin D: The amount of vitamin D expected to treat the inadequacy relies greatly on the extent upon the level of the lack and hidden risk factors. Initial supplementation for quite some time with Vitamin D3 either 6,000 IU day to day or 50,000 IU weekly can be thought of. When the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level surpasses 30 ng/mL, an everyday support portion of 1,000 to 2,000 IU is suggested.

A higher-portion initial supplementation with vitamin D3 at 10,000 IU day to day might be required in high-risk adults who are lacking vitamin D. When serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level surpasses 30ng/mL, 3000 to 6000 IU/day maintenance dose is suggested.

Conclusion

Children who are vitamin D insufficient require 2000 IU/day of vitamin D3 or 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 once weekly for quite some time. When the serum 25(OH)D level surpasses 30 ng/mL, 1000 IU/day maintenance treatment is suggested. As per the American Academy of Pediatrics, babies who are breastfed and kids who consume less than 1 L of vitamin D-fortified milk need 400 IU of vitamin D supplementation.

Calcitriol can be thought about where the deficiency persists despite the treatment with vitamin D2 as well as D3. The serum calcium level will be firmly checked in these people because of an increased risk of hypercalcemia secondary to calcitriol. Calcidiol can be considered in patients with fat malabsorption or severe liver disease.

References

  1. Holick MF. Vitamin D: important for prevention of osteoporosis, cardiovascular heart disease, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, and some cancers. South Med J. 2005;98(10):1024-8.
  2. Indexed at, Google scholar, Cross ref

  3. Czernichow S, Fan T, Nocea G, et al. Calcium and vitamin D intake by postmenopausal women with osteoporosis in France. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010;26(7):1667-74.
  4. Indexed at, Google scholar, Cross ref

  5. Pereira-Santos M, Costa PD, Assis AD, et al. Obesity and vitamin D deficiency: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Obes Rev. 2015;16(4):341-9.
  6. Indexed at, Google scholar, Cross ref

  7. Gröber U, Kisters K. Influence of drugs on vitamin D and calcium metabolism. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012;4(2):158-66.
  8. Indexed at, Google scholar, Cross ref

  9. Palacios C, Gonzalez L. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem?. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;144:138-45.
  10. Indexed at, Google scholar, Cross ref

Get the App