Opinion Article - Journal of Mental Health and Aging (2023) Volume 7, Issue 2
Behaviorism and the rise of experimental psychology.Harrison Harrell*
Division of Mental Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Harrison Harrell
Division of Mental Diseases
Duke University Medical Center, USA
Received: 01-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AAJMHA-23- 93777; Editor assigned: 03-Mar-2023, PreQC No. AAJMHA-23- 93777 (PQ); Reviewed: 17-Mar-2023, QC No. AAJMHA-23- 93777; Revised: 21-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AAJMHA-23- 93777 (R); Published: 28-Mar-2023, DOI:10.35841/aajptsm-7.2.137
Citation: Harrison H. Behaviorism and the Rise of Experimental Psychology. J Ment Health Aging. 2023;7(2):137
Behaviorism was a dominant school of thought in psychology during the early 20th century that emphasized the importance of observable behavior as a means of understanding human and animal behavior. This approach to psychology was heavily influenced by the rise of experimental psychology, which emerged in the late 19th century and was characterized by a focus on empirical research and scientific methodology. One of the key figures in the development of behaviorism was John Watson, who argued that psychology should be focused on observable behavior and should not concern itself with unobservable mental processes like thoughts and emotions.
Mental health, Pyscological, OCD, Young people.
Behaviorism was also influenced by the work of Ivan Pavlov, who showed that animals could be trained to respond to specific stimuli through a process called classical conditioning. This work provided a scientific basis for the idea that behavior could be shaped through environmental factors. The rise of behaviorism had a significant impact on the field of psychology, leading to the development of new research methods and experimental techniques. These methods helped to establish psychology as a scientific discipline and led to the development of a number of important theories and models of behavior Watson believed that behavior was shaped by environmental factors, and that behavior could be understood and predicted through the use of scientific experimentation .
Behaviorism was also influenced by the work of Ivan Pavlov, who showed that animals could be trained to respond to specific stimuli through a process called classical conditioning. This work provided a scientific basis for the idea that behavior could be shaped through environmental factors. The rise of behaviorism had a significant impact on the field of psychology, leading to the development of new research methods and experimental techniques. These methods helped to establish psychology as a scientific discipline and led to the development of a number of important theories and models of behavior .
Today, behaviorism is still an influential school of thought in psychology, although it has been somewhat eclipsed by newer approaches like cognitive psychology and evolutionary psychology. However, the legacy of behaviorism and its emphasis on scientific methodology and empirical research continues to shape the field of psychology to this day. Behaviorism was a major theoretical perspective in psychology that emerged in the early 20th century and had a significant impact on the rise of experimental psychology. Behaviorism was a reaction to the introspective methods that were prevalent in psychology at the time, which relied on self-report and subjective observation of mental processes. Behaviorists rejected the study of mental states and instead focused on observable behaviors that could be objectively measured and studied using experimental methods .
This shift towards behavior as the primary focus of study led to the development of new experimental techniques such as operant conditioning and reinforcement, which were used to study animal behavior and the principles of learning. Behaviorism also had a significant impact on the study of human behavior, particularly in the field of clinical psychology. Behavior therapists developed treatments such as systematic desensitization and token economies that were based on the principles of behaviorism and aimed to change maladaptive behaviors. The rise of experimental psychology was closely tied to the development of behaviorism, as behaviorists relied heavily on empirical methods and experimentation to study behavior. This led to a greater emphasis on controlled experimentation and the use of laboratory methods in psychology research . Overall, behaviorism played a significant role in the rise of experimental psychology and had a lasting impact on the field by promoting a scientific and objective approach to studying behavior Behaviorism is a theoretical approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behaviors, rather than internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings, and emotions. It emerged in the early 20th century as a response to the dominant approach of introspectionism, which focused on self-reporting of conscious experiences. The rise of experimental psychology in the late 19th and early 20th century paved the way for the emergence of behaviorism. The experimental approach, which emphasizes the use of controlled experiments to study behavior, allowed psychologists to systematically investigate the relationships between different variables and behavior. .
The behaviorist approach was first introduced by John B. Watson, who is considered the founder of behaviorism. Watson believed that behavior could be explained by conditioning, a process by which an organism learns to associate a particular behavior with a particular stimulus. He believed that behavior could be studied objectively, without any reference to internal mental processes. B.F. Skinner, another influential behaviorist, expanded upon Watson's ideas by developing the concept of operant conditioning. Skinner believed that behavior was shaped by the consequences of that behavior, and that positive reinforcement could.
- Braat M, Engelen J, van Gemert T, et al. The rise and fall of behaviorism: The narrative and the numbers. Hist Psychol. 2020;23(3):252.
- Harrell W, Harrison R. The rise and fall of behaviorism. The J Gen Psychol. 1938;18(2):367-421.
- Windholz G. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism. J Hist Behav Sci. 1983;19(4):394-407.
- Harzem P. Behaviorism for new psychology: What was wrong with behaviorism and what is wrong with it now. Behavior Philos. 2004;5-12.
- Herrnstein RJ. The evolution of behaviorism. Am Psychol. 1977;32(8):593.
Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref
Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref