Journal of Nutrition and Human Health

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (629)348-3199

Commentary - Journal of Nutrition and Human Health (2022) Volume 6, Issue 4

A critique of milk fat in health and nutrition.

Liam Noah*

Department of Pharmacy, Wellstar Atlanta Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Liam Noah
Department of Pharmacy
Wellstar Atlanta Medical Center
Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Received: 28-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. AAJNHH-22-116; Editor assigned: 30-Mar-2022, Pre QC No. AAJNHH-22-116(PQ); Reviewed: 13-Apr-2022, QC No. AAJNHH-22-116; Revised: 16- Apr-2022, Manuscript No. AAJNHH-22-116(R); Published: 23-Apr-2022, DOI: 10.35841/aajnhh-6.4.116

Citation: Noah L. A critique of milk fat in health and nutrition. J Nutr Hum Health. 2022;6(4):116

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Nutrition and Human Health


Nutrition, cattle milk products have a long history. Milk's importance is represented within the northern tradition, where a cow named Audhumla emerged from the melting ice. Fatty acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fats, short term and medium-chain fatty acids, enzymes, metals, and bioactive compounds all provide health benefits. Milk is a complex food made up of various substances that might have either detrimental or good health consequences. The primary aim of the present review is to discuss the effects of milk components that are of particular interest to consumer health, as well as to provide an overview of the potential for manipulating bovine milk through lactating cow feeding regimes, resulting in improved nutritional composition of dairy for human utilization. Lipids in milk are emulsified in membrane-coated agglomerates. Such peptides are micelles in colloidal dispersions. Caseins are soluble nutrient and mineral compounds, primarily calcium. The dietary regimen can change the content of lactate. Most minerals and lactose are in solution. Nutrient composition is flexible, and it varies depending on lactation stage, age, breed, nutrition, caloric expenditure, and the udder's overall health. Most glaring change between colostrum and milk is the percentage of milk protein, which may be nearly twice in colostrum compared to later in nursing [1].

Dairy constituents and their health effects

Saturated fatty acids: Saturated fatty acids account for more than half of the milk fatty acids, or about 19 kcal entire economic dairy. Butyric acid is a well-known gene function modulator that may also help to prevent cancer and it is a gene modulator that may also help prevent malignancy and serve as an anticariogenic and pro-government agent. The lipid has the ability to destroy Helicobacter pylori [2]. Elevated blood cholesterol levels are raised by these compounds, and saturated fat-rich diets have been related to the development of heart disease, weight gain, and overweight. There is a link between milk and milk products consumption and blood lipid profile, Density lipoprotein, and Cholesterol level. Heavy saturated fats are linked to an increased risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), with LDL cholesterol and a high LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio increasing the risk of Cancer. Diets high in low-fat dairy products have been linked to lower hypercholesterolemia in several intervention studies. Researchers discovered that fatty acids present in milk products were linked to a better LDL profile in healthy men fewer small, dense LDL particles and also that men who consumed a lot of dairy products seemed to have an evidently advantageous and decreased dispersion of the hazardous small, dense Low - density lipoproteins [3].

Unsaturated fatty acids: The single unsaturated fatty acid with the highest content in dairy is oleic acid. which accounts for around 60 mg whole dairy. Eating a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic acid, are thought to be beneficial to one's health since they reduce serum cholesterol, Cholesterol level, and sterol levels. Fatty acids are replaced with cis-unsaturated fatty acids, which lowers the risk of heart attack. Fatty acids are the primary component of all cell membranes. Because radicals and subsequent peroxidation products can cause oxidative stress, unsaturated fatty acids are reactive. Homogenized milk is rich in oleic acid approximately 25%, and the ratio of oleic acid to polyunsaturated is particularly high. As a result, a diet high in dairy protein will aid in increasing this ratio in total dietary fatty acids [4]. A large diet of protein from sheep, for example, is likely to get a positive effect. In contrast to eicosanoids obtained from long omega-3 fats, eicosanoids derived from linoleic acid via arachidonic acid may enhance blood platelet aggregation and hence increase coronary risk. Regulator has the capacity to substantially stop the production of toxic eicosanoids from omega-6 fatty acids, lowering cardiovascular risk and blocking tumour genesis. Signal transduction and gene expression may also be affected by Polyunsaturated [5].


The main dietary sources of the cis 9, Trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid are bovine milk, milk products, and bovine flesh. Other geometrical and positional isomers of CLA, which have distinct biochemical effects, also are found in milk in trace levels. The amount of 9c, 11t-CLA in milk varies a lot and it's usually around 0.6% of the fat fraction. There are numerous mechanisms by which CLA may influence metabolic. CLA appears to compete with eicosanoids in the oxidase process, resulting in a decline of prostaglandins and thromboxane’s in the 2-series. CLA will inhibit cyclooxygenase gene expression.


  1. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet. 2004;364(9438):937-52.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Ontsouka CE, Bruckmaier RM, Blum JW. Fractionized milk composition during removal of colostrum and mature milk. J Dairy Sci. 2003;86(6):2005-11.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Grundy SM. Influence of stearic acid on cholesterol metabolism relative to other long-chain fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;60(6):986S-90S.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester ADM, et al. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(5):1146-55.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Sun CQ, O'Connor CJ, Roberton AM. The antimicrobial properties of milkfat after partial hydrolysis by calf pregastric lipase. Chem Biol Interact. 2002;140(2):185-98.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App