Archives of Industrial Biotechnology

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Mini Review - Archives of Industrial Biotechnology (2022) Volume 6, Issue 1

A comprehensive overview of elements in bioremediation.

John Joy*

Department of Microbiology; Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées (IRBA-CRSSA); La Tronche Cedex,France

*Corresponding Author:
Joseph John
Department of Microbiology
Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées (IRBA-CRSSA)
La Tronche Cedex
France
E-mail:
[email protected]

Received: 29-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AAAIB-22-105; Editor assigned: 31- Feb -2022, Pre QC No. AAAIB -22-105(PQ); Reviewed: 14- Feb -2022, QC No. AAAIB -22-105; Revised: 17- Feb -2022, Manuscript No. AAAIB -22-105(R); Published: 24- Feb -2022, DOI: 10.35841/ AAAIB - 6.1.105

Citation: Joy J. A comprehensive overview of elements in bioremediation. Arch Ind Biot. 2022:6(1):105

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Introduction

Bioremediation is a technique for treating contaminated media such as water, soil, and underground material by altering environmental conditions to induce microorganism growth and breakdown of the target contaminants. Bioremediation is used to clean up oil spills, soils contaminated by acidic mine drainage, underground pipe breaks, and crime scene clean-ups. These dangerous compounds are detoxified by enzymes found in microorganisms. The majority of bioremediation techniques involve oxidation-reduction reactions, in which an electron acceptor (usually oxygen) is added to encourage the oxidation of a reduced pollutant (e.g. hydrocarbons) or an electron donor (usually an organic substrate) is added to reduce oxidised pollutants (nitrate, perchlorate, oxidised metals, chlorinated solvents, explosives and propellants). Bioremediation is a strategy for decreasing the environmental impact of anthropogenic wastes such as sewage [1].

Contaminants can be eliminated or decreased using a variety of in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation procedures. The treatment location determines how bioremediation approaches are categorised. Ex situ procedures frequently need the contaminated site to be excavated, which raises expenses. In situ approaches treat polluted places in a cost-effective, non-destructive manner. Additional nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and pH buffers may be added to both of these ways to improve the microbes' circumstances. Bio-stimulation (the addition of specialised microbial cultures to accelerate biodegradation) is sometimes used. Phytoremediation, bioventing, bio-attenuation, bio-sparging, composting (biopiles and windrows), and land farming are some examples of bioremediation-related technologies [2].

In Situ Techniques

Bioventing

Bioventing is a procedure that accelerates the rate of natural in situ breakdown of the targeted hydrocarbon pollutant by increasing oxygen or air movement into the unsaturated zone of the soil. Bioventing, also known as aerobic bioremediation, is a type of oxidative bioremediation that uses oxygen as an electron acceptor for the oxidation of petroleum, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols, and other reduced pollutants. Because of the increased energy yield and because some enzyme systems require oxygen to commence the degradation process, oxygen is often the preferred electron acceptor. Microorganisms may break down a wide range of hydrocarbons, including gasoline, kerosene, diesel, and jet fuel components. The biodegradation rates of low- to moderate-weight aliphatic, alicyclic, and cyclic aliphatic, alicyclic, and cyclic aliphatic, alicyclic, and cyclic aliphatic, alicycl [3].

The majority of bioremediation processes involve oxidationreduction reactions, in which an electron acceptor (typically oxygen) is added to stimulate the oxidation of a reduced pollutant (e.g. hydrocarbons) or an electron donor (typically an organic substrate) is added to reduce oxidised pollutants (nitrate, perchlorate, oxidised metals, chlorinated solvents, explosives and propellants). Additional nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and pH buffers may be added to both of these ways to improve the microbes' circumstances. Specialized microbial cultures are sometimes added (bio augmentation) to help with biodegradation [4].

Recirculating aerated water through the treatment zone, adding pure oxygen or peroxides, and air sparging are all methods for adding oxygen below the water table. In most recirculation systems, a mix of injection wells or galleries and one or more recovery wells are used.

Biostimulation

This process is known as biostimulation, and it can be carried out by bacteria that are naturally present in the environment or by introducing nutrients.

Bacteria, often known as microbia, are naturally occurring microorganisms that breakdown hydrocarbons.

Many biological processes are pH-sensitive, and they work best when the pH is around neutral. Low pH can disrupt pH balance or enhance the solubility of hazardous metals. Microorganisms can use cellular energy to maintain homeostasis, or cytoplasmic conditions can vary in reaction to changes in pH outside of the cell. Changes in carbon and electron flow, cellular shape, membrane structure, and protein synthesis have all helped anaerobes adapt to low pH circumstances [5].

References

  1. Boopathy R. Factors limiting bioremediation technologies. Bioresour Technol. 2000;74(1):63-7.
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  3. Watanabe K. Microorganisms relevant to bioremediation. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2001;12(3):237-41.
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  5. Iwamoto T, Nasu M. Current bioremediation practice and perspective. J Biosci Bioeng. 2001;92(1):1-8.
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  7. Atlas RM. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants. Int Biodeterior. 1995;35(1-3):317-27.
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  9. Pieper DH, Reineke W. Engineering bacteria for bioremediation. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2000;11(3):262-70.
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