Research Paper - Journal Clinical Psychiatry and Cognitive Psychology (2018) Volume 2, Issue 2
Skin, hair and nails as pointers to neurocognitive disorders in children: our experience.
Introduction: The word ectoderm is derived from Greek “ektos” which means “outside” and “derma”, meaning “skin”. This differentiates in to the nervous system, teeth, skin, sweat glands, hair and nails. As these structures develop at almost the same time, diseases affecting the nervous system share changes in one or more of these sites, which serve as an easy marker for diagnosis.
Patient and methods: Patients with various neurological illnesses seen by the authors in the last five years were evaluated for ectodermal markers. They all underwent appropriate investigations to establish the diagnosis.
Observation: Total numbers of patients were 955. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Mean age was10 ± 4.5 years. Out of these patients, clues from general examination helped in either giving a specific diagnosis or helped in formulating differential diagnosis in 78 (8.2%) patients. The conditions belonged to degenerative, immunological, metabolic, infective, inflammatory and toxic causes.
Conclusion: Ectodermal organs serve as a window to neurological diagnosis in about 8.2% children presenting with Global Developmental Delay (GDD) and this clinical clue narrows down the differential diagnosis in children in the first decade of their life.Author(s): S R Chandra*, Akanksha Suresh, CS Vidhya Annapoorni, Rita Christopher, Asheeb A, Thomas Gregor Issac