Research Article - Current Pediatric Research (2021) Volume 25, Issue 8
Serological and epidemiological study on COVID-19 infections in Nineveh governorate.
Background: A novel coronavirus Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) discovered in China in December 2019 that has led to an unprecedented global pandemic. It causes coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness with symptoms ranging from mild to severe with possible progression to pneumonia, multiple organ failure and even to death. Objectives: • To investigate the risk factors associated with COVID - 9 infections. • To investigate the occurrence and percentage of olfactory dysfunction in patients with COVID-19 infection. • To investigate the relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and covid-19 infection. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 400 persons presenting with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. These persons were admitted to Al Rabee hospital during a period from 1st June to 1st December 2020. ABO and Rh (D) blood groups test and covid-19 test were performed to all patients and control. COVID-19 test was confirmed by VIDAS methods. This study included 200 COVID-19 positive patients and 200 COVID-19 negative persons used as control. Results: Patients age ranged from 1 year to 80 years (mean age 54 years); the highest frequency of COVID-19 occurred in the age group (61-70) years. There were 120 (60%) males and 80 (40%) females with a ratio of 1.5:1. The most diffused risk factors associated with COVID-19 infection were older age, male sex and major comorbidities including (hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory disease, obesity, smoking, chronic kidney disease, cancer, liver disease and malnutrition) 77% of patients reported olfactory dysfunction. The ABO blood group in 200 normal persons showed a distribution of 31%, 16%, 8% and 45% for A, B, AB and O, respectively vs. the ABO blood group in 200 COVID?19 positive patients showed a distribution of 46%, 18%, 9% and 27% for A, B, AB and O, respectively. ABO blood group was found to be significantly associated with COVID?19 status (P=0.001). The proportion of blood group A and O in COVID-19 patients were significantly higher and lower respectively than that in normal people (both P=0.001). No significant association was found between Rhesus negative (Rh-) blood group and occurrence of COVID-19 in present study. Conclusion: Our data found that the risk factors associated with COVID-19 infection were older age, male sex and comorbidities. And the risk of COVID-19 is higher with blood group A persons and lower with blood group O. Rhesus negative (Rh-) blood group associated with lower risk of COVID-19 illness.Author(s): Kawkab Idrees Mahmood, Haitham Abdul-Malik Al nori, Zainab lssam Ali