Journal of Chemical Technology and Applications

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Review Article - Journal of Chemical Technology and Applications (2021) Volume 4, Issue 3

Microbial pretreatment of biomass for renewable energy production

 Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass without pretreatment often transforms just one-third of the carbon into biogas, which is generally only 60% methane. Physical and chemical pretreatments to boost biomass biogas generation have shown to be ineffective. Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, an anaerobic thermophile, has been found to be capable of solubilizing up to 90% of lignocellulose, making the carbon available for anaerobic digestion. C. bescii has been shown to be capable of solubilizing a wide range of lignocellulosic materials in preliminary trials. Anaerobic digestion turns soluble materials into biogas with 70-80% methane quickly and efficiently. Isothermal biomicrocalorimetry experiments have shown the process's thermodynamics. We used the pretreatment-anaerobic digestion technique on gigantic king grass and saw a considerable increase in biogas generation. BEST is now gathering data on the pretreatment process using C. bescii and developing system prototypes to demonstrate the viability of scaling up to megawatt plants. Bioenergy is energy derived from biomass, and it plays a significant role in the promotion of renewable energy sources. LC biomass, which contains lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses, is one of nature's most abundant renewable bioresources. Lignocellulosic materials, such as agricultural and forest leftovers, energy crops, and municipal and food waste, are the finest sources for biofuel generation, such as biogas. According to the most recent biogas data data, energy crops, manure, and other agricultural leftovers account for over 72 percent of the feedstocks utilised in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process for biogas generation in Europe. The fundamental problem with utilising lignocellulosic (LC) biomass for biogas generation is biomass recalcitrance, which refers to the resistance of the biomass to chemical and biological degradation. Because of the complex structure that makes up LC biomass, which is utilised as a feedstock for biogas generation, the standard AD process has a lower hydrolysis rate. As a result, LC biomass pretreatment prior to AD is regarded as a critical step in improving biodegradability and biogas generation. Because of the short response time and increased requirement for nourishment for enzymatic reactions, as well as the fact that most enzymes do not react in the presence of inhibitors and other microbial metabolites, this pretreatment approach is gaining popularity. Because commercial and purified enzymes are too expensive for the AD process, using an enzyme-secreting, bacterial consortia for biomass is advantageous. Physical and chemical pretreatments for lignocellulosic resource breakdown are energy intensive and involve chemicals that may be harmful to the environment. 

Author(s): Jaron Hansen, Conly Hansen, Lee Hansen and Zachary Aanderud

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