Review Article - Journal of Public Health and Nutrition (2019) Volume 2, Issue 3
Lasting effect of nutritional and exercise interventions on body weight: A comprehensive literature review.
Objectives: Obesity is a serious public health concern. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to report on the effectiveness of nutritional and exercise interventions alone or in combination on body weight loss and maintenance in adults.
Methodology: A literature search was performed in 2018. 20 studies on nutritional and exercise interventions were identified and included into this review.
Results: Overall, 18 of 20 studies reported a total weight loss ranging between -0.6% to -9.0%. Diet in combination with exercise yielded the best results, exercise alone was the least effective. High-protein and/or low glycaemic index diets as well as the Mediterranean diet had a highly positive effect on body weight. However, the majority of studies reported body weight regain during follow-up.
Conclusion: Caloric restriction, especially in combination with physical activity, is the most effective way to achieve considerable weight loss in a short amount of time. However, after initial weight loss maintaining body weight in the long-term is a major challenge. Education and cognitive behavioral therapy contribute to long-term success of weight loss programs. Integrating subjective theories for being overweight/obese may improve the outcome.Author(s): Marti T, Foth D, Weidlinger S, Stute V, Stute P