Research Article - Annals of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery (2018) Volume 1, Issue 2
Innovative mirror image transatrial techniques for biventricular repair in inverted dextrocardia
Background: Correction of hearts with situs inversus dextrocardia represent technical challenges due to mirror image anatomy and altered conduction pathway. Ventriculotomy has been the traditional approach for biventricular repair. We report our experience of trans-atrial approach in these patients employing an easily reproducible preoperative delineation of the anatomy. In addition we also discuss our way of surgical execution for these complex subsets.
Methods and Findings: 15 patients (M:F=7:8) with situs inversus dextrocardia with diverse congenital cardiac anomalies underwent biventricular repair through our trans-atrial approach from left side of patient with detailed pre-operative evaluation of the anomalies. Orientation of intra-cardiac anatomy was obtained pre-operatively by rendering standard illustrations in reversed and inverted way. Median age and weight were 12 months (4.5 months-31 years) and 5.8 kg (3.4-59 kg) respectively.
The surgical spectrum included closure of ventricular septal defects (n=6), repair of double outlet right ventricle (n=3), repair of tetralogy of Fallot (n=5) and double switch operation for congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries, routable ventricular septal defect and pulmonary stenosis. Tricuspid valve leaflet detachment was performed frequently to aid the repair (n=7).
Mean hospital stay was 12.4 ± 2.6 days with no hospital mortality. On follow-up, all patients remained in sinus rhythm and in New York Heart Association class I. One patient had a small residual ventricular septal defect with insignificant shunt. Another patient with tetralogy of Fallot correction underwent right pulmonary artery balloon plasty. Patient with double switch operation needed re-admission for supraventricular tachycardia and medical management. Another patient of tetralogy of Fallot re-developed infundibular gradient, awaiting intervention.
Conclusions: Trans-atrial biventricular repair is feasible and reproducible in these subsets. The inverted illustrations facilitate in enabling successful repairs while avoiding heart blocks and ventriculotomy. Short-term results are satisfactory.Author(s): Gananjay G Salve*, Shreepal A Jain, Manglesh S Nimbalkar, Sandip S Katkade, Jeril Kurien, Himanshu Choudhury, Bharat V Dalvi, Raman Krishna Kumar, Krishnanaik Shivaprakash