Research Article - Biomedical Research (2022) Volume 33, Issue 8
Extraction, isolation, and characterization of aflatoxins from different herbs and spices in saudi arabia.
Aflatoxins are the most important group of mycotoxins, produced by different Aspergillus species, according to International Agency for Research on Cancer aflatoxins has been found to be responsible cause immunotoxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic effects on human beings the samples of herbs and spices has been collected from Riyadh, Tabuk and Hail region of Saudi Arabia. All the samples were screened for Isolation of fungal strains, and extraction and quantification of Aflatoxins was done using HPLC system using water/ acetonitrile/methanol mobile phase. Aflatoxins were calculated as ppb (µg/kg) .The highest concentration of aflatoxin G1 was observed as 1.003 (ppb) in the herb Origanum majorana in the Riyadh region, in the herb Zingiber ofﬁcinale which is observed as 1.024 (ppb) and B1 found to be 0.131 and 0.421 (ppb) in the Tabuk and hail region and fungal species Aspergillus flavus has been isolated, moreover, spice Piper nigrum contaminated with highest concentration of Aflatoxin G2 6.460 (ppb) and in Zingiber ofﬁcinale concentration of Aflatoxin G1 was observed as 0.740 (ppb) in the Hail region. As the aflatoxins are reported to be possess nephrotoxic, genotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic, and cytotoxic effects in the humans. To conclude, the herbs and spices should be monitored under safety and precautionary guidelines during its production, processing and marketing to prevent with contamination of toxigenic fungal strains and aflatoxins as it may leads to serious health threats and illness.Author(s): Hadeel Salman Alatawi, Sarah Alsobaie, Fadwa Alshareef, Samiah Alenzi, Niaf Alenzi, Ayesha Mateen