Review Article - Journal of Chemical Technology and Applications (2021) Volume 4, Issue 1
Cleaner and greener fuels from an integrated petroleum refinery
For the foreseeable future, petroleum refineries will continue to be the primary source of transportation fuels. However, in order to eliminate hazardous emissions, it is necessary to continually enhance the quality of these fuels in order to make them cleaner and greener. However, quality gains in traditional refineries have reached a limit, necessitating the consideration of alternative and synergistic techniques to increase quality and establish higher requirements. Theoretical Orientation & Methodology: By combining Fischer Tropsch (FT) synthesis based on syngas obtained from natural gas reforming with a traditional refinery, the suggested technique intends to enhance the quality of key liquid fuels such as diesel and gasoline. High-quality, clean-burning diesel and gasoline fuels may be made through FT synthesis. The diesel fuel produced by the FT synthesis method, in particular, is almost devoid of particle emissions precursors (polynuclear aromatics) and has a sulphur concentration of less than 0.5 ppm. Similarly, gasoline from the FT refinery has low sulphur content and a high octane rating. Continuous attempts to boost drop-in biodiesel and bioethanol content will boost the renewable content of these fuels while also improving their quality. Conclusion and Importance: The proposed combination of a traditional petroleum refinery with the FT synthesis process, which produces high-quality clean diesel and gasoline fuels from natural gas, offers tremendous potential to reduce harmful emissions from these fuels. Drop-in biodiesel and bioethanol will increase the quality of these fuels while lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable fuels have been one of the hottest subjects in the energy discussion this millennium. The increased interest is understandable, given the growing worry about CO2 emissions into the atmosphere and their influence on global warming. Political instability in the locations where crude oil is produced is another important element. Finally, local agriculture economics and trade deficits, which are partially owing to historically high crude oil costs, offer an additional impetus for many of the world's largest users of petroleum to derive more energy from domestic sources.
Flora has been a source of fuel, as well as numerous useful and necessary compounds and elements, for ages. Many of those items got cheaper and performed better when generated from fossil feedstock’s during the oil period. The most sustainable approach to renewable fuels would be to encourage benefiting first from the value chain of biomass constituents and producing fuel only from the residues, or from a completely different feedstock, such as algae, which is not part of the food chain or the traditional green industry. Many businesses are already researching this way of moving from pollution to solution. Petroleum refineries are ideal places for the development of renewable fuels. They are, after all, designed for the most cost-effective production of sophisticated fuels and the delivery of acceptable goods to neighboring civilizations. Refiners have a lot of expertise with their raw materials and equipment, owing to the fact that they've been using them for a long time and have learned everything there is to know about them. Another significant point to consider is that processing renewable feeds as co-feeds in an existing refinery is not always the most cost-effective option. Furthermore, extant market criteria for renewable feed materials approximate only the main criteria for current uses, with no comprehensive description of biomaterial qualities. The major aspects and surprises will only be revealed via experience.Author(s): Anand Prakash