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Abstract - Biology & Medicine Case Reports (2021) Volume 5, Issue 3

Circulating Micrornas in Obese and Diabetic Patients. An update

microRNAs (miRNAs), short noncoding RNA sequences, regulate several biological processes as cell differentiation, proliferation and development, cell-to-cell communication, cell metabolism and apoptosis. miRNAs seem also regulate insulin signalling, immune-mediated inflammation, adipokine expression, adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and food intake. miRNAs may have a role in molecular mechanisms linked to cellular pathways of some diseases, as viral infections, cancer, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Dysregulation of several miRNAs involves different aspects of diabetic disease: glycaemic control, residual beta cell function, insulin secretion and sensitivity, micro- and macro-vascular complications as endothelial dysfunction, renal disease and retinopathy. The recent discovery of circulating miRNAs (c-miRNAs) easily detectable and measurable in plasma and other body fluids, led to the hypothesis of their potential role as disease indicators. Altered levels of several c-miRNAs were found to be linked to type 1 and type 2 diabetes, both at onset and in advanced disease. A lot of c-miRNAs are consistently dysregulated in diabetic patients and miR-126 was confirmed to be the most linked to pathways and development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and their complications. 

Author(s): Dr. T. Angelo Michele Carella

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