Research Article - Journal of Public Health and Nutrition (2018) Volume 1, Issue 4
Blood pressure pattern and body composition of hypertensive outpatients attending University college hospital, Ibadan.
Hypertension is one of the chronic non-communicable diseases which pose public health challenges in developing countries especially among black race, and excess weight gain has been found to be one of the predictors of hypertension. Conventional Body Mass Index (BMI) is limited in measuring the weight gain in individuals of all population groups and this gives the need for more reliable anthropometric index such as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio to measure body composition. This study evaluates the relationship between blood pressure pattern and body composition of the hypertensive outpatients who were attending University College Hospital, Ibadan, and Oyo State, Nigeria. The study design was descriptive cross-sectional involving ninety-two (92) hypertensive outpatients; 55 females and 37 males. A semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to interview the participants. The past three and the current participants’ Blood Pressure (BP) readings were assessed from their case files after the patients had consulted the physicians, and average BP was calculated for each patient. Weight (kg), body fat and visceral fat of the participants were measured by Automated Omron device. Height (m) measured with the use of stadiometer. Waist circumference (m) and Hip circumference (m) were measured with non-stretchable tape. Waist-to-height, waist-to-hip ratio and Body Mass Index were calculated. The hypertensive outpatients were 40.2% males and 59.8% females. Mean age of the male and female participants were 57.1 ± 13 years and 54.8 ± 13 years respectively. More than half (53.3%) of them had family history of hypertension (HTN) and some (41.4%) of them had been treating hypertension for five years while 49.5% had been on treatment for more than five years. Of all the patients, only 6.5% had normal BP, 44.6% had preHTN, 31.5% had stage 1 HTN and 17.4% had stage 2 HTN. Mean weight of the female and male patients were 73.45 ± 12.46 kg and 74.98 ± 12.52 kg respectively. Mean height of the female and male patients were 1.61 ± 0.06 m and 1.73 ± 0.09 m respectively. Waist circumferences of the female and male patients were 0.95 ± 0.16 m and 0.94 ± 0.10 m respectively. Waist-to-Hip Ratios (WHR) of the female and male patients were 0.96 ± 0.14 and 0.94 ± 0.10 respectively. Waist-to-Height Ratios (WHtR) of the female and male patients were 0.59 ± 0.09 and 0.54 ± 0.06 respectively. Body fat parentages of the female and male patients were 39.57 ± 7.51 and 22.53 ± 8.39 respectively. Visceral fat percentages of the female and male patient were 9.05 ± 3.05 and 9.65 ± 5.08 respectively. Resting Metabolism of the female and male patients were 1436.33 ± 143.65 and 1606.43 ± 187.97. Significant associations were observed between the age and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.001), between the weight-to-height ratio and systolic blood pressure (p=0.019) and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.032) of the patients; between body muscle of the patients and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.055). In conclusion, majority of the hypertensive outpatients had family history of hypertension. There was prevalence of prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension among the patients. Most of them were overweight, obese and had high abdominal adiposity which predicts risk of metabolic diseases such as diabetes and hyperlipidemia among the hypertensive patients. Significant relationship was found between waist-to-height ratio and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and between age and diastolic blood pressure, and between body muscle and diastolic blood pressure.Author(s): Oluwasiji Olabisi O, Fadupin Grace T, Adebiyi Adewole A