Review Article - Journal of Clinical and Experimental Toxicology (2017) Volume 1, Issue 1
Antimicrobial resistance: An agent in zoonotic disease and increased morbidity.
The emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms is a significant challenge where increasing numbers of bacterial species are now showing multidrug resistance. At government level, there is a global incentive to develop novel therapeutic options; however, the development of new antibiotic agents will undoubtedly be followed by the emergence of resistance to these compounds, implying that the use of antibiotics is unsustainable. Currently there is a lack of new antibiotic options available for use especially against Gram negative pathogens. Reduction in the use of antibiotics and the prevention of infection therefore, may prove the most useful method to combat the issue. The use of antibiotics for veterinary applications as therapeutic, prophylactic, metaphylactic and as animal growth promoters has greatly proliferated the problem. The presence of sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotics in water ways from both agriculture and aquaculture encourages the expression of drug resistance. Furthermore, their high water solubility, extensive half-lives and constant use means that they persist in the environment, having repercussions for human and ecological health. The use of antibiotics from an early age may also have a negative impact on human morbidity with potential to contribute to obesity, dysbiosis and target organ toxicity of the liver and kidneys. This review aims to discuss three main concerns 1) the extensive use of antibiotics for veterinary and its impact on the emergence of resistance, 2) the occurrence of zoonotic disease particularly with resistant strains and 3) the relationship between both aquatic and food pollution and human morbidity.Author(s): Elaine Meade, Mark Anthony Slattery, Mary Garvey