Journal of Anesthetics and Anesthesiology

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Abstract - Journal of Anesthetics and Anesthesiology (2019) Volume 3, Issue 1

Anesthesia 2019: Effects of intraoperative magnesium sulphate administration on the incidence of chronic postsurgical pain in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty- Sang-Hwan Do, Seoul National Univeristy

 Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is an effective analgesic adjuvant for acute postoperative pain. However, the effect of MgSO4 on chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) remains unknown. We investigated this effect of MgSO4 in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) retrospectively. The operation was conducted by the same experienced surgeon under spinal anesthesia, unilaterally (n=355), staged bilaterally (n=489, at 1-week interval) or simultaneous bilaterally (n=31). The magnesium group received MgSO4 (50 mg/kg) over 15 min followed by a continuous infusion (15 mg/kg/h) during the operation. Medical records of a total of 875 patients [control group (n = 780) and the magnesium group (n = 95)] for 6 years (2012~2017) were reviewed retrospectively. In case of insufficient records, telephone interview was added. The incidences of CPSP at postoperative one year were compared between the two groups. The incidence of CPSP at one year after TKA in the magnesium group (7.4%) was significantly lower than that of the control group (16.4%) (P = 0.031). Intraoperative administration of MgSO4 was effective for preventing the occurrence of CPSP after TKA.



Absolute knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most ordinarily performed surgeries in created nations [1]. The basic roles of TKA are help with discomfort and improvement in portability and wellbeing related personal satisfaction in patients with cutting edge knee osteoarthritis (OA) [2]. Among the patients who experience TKA, around 20% are accounted for to encounter ceaseless determined postoperative torment (PPP). Because of the normal future increment in the interest and number of TKAs performed, unfriendly results, for example, ceaseless PPP after TKA—ought to be of critical worry to patients, human services suppliers, and strategy producers.


Magnesium sulfate is an adjuvant medication that is directed during the perioperative period, and one of the advantages of its perioperative organization is the improvement of intense postoperative torment. The absense of pain potentiating impact of magnesium sulfate is notable in patients getting an assortment of medical procedures including TKAs. Moreover, notwithstanding mitigating intense postoperative torment, magnesium sulfate might be compelling at forestalling ceaseless PPP after TKA. This impact is clarified by two speculations. In the first place, the component of the pain relieving impact of magnesium sulfate is believed to be its hostile impact on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which are related with the advancement of focal refinement after fringe tissue injury or irritation.


Materials and Methods


Moral Statement:

This examination was a review observational investigation at a solitary tertiary scholastic medical clinic, performed with endorsement by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (SNUBH) (Approval Number: B-1901/514-117, endorsement date: 24 December 2018). The IRB postponed the prerequisite to get educated assent from the patients, in view of the review partner plan, which examined the wellbeing records of patients who had just finished their treatment. Every clinical record were gathered secretly by a clinical record professional in the clinical informatic group at SNUBH. What's more, this investigation was directed by the rules of Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE).


Perioperative Care for Patients Undergoing TKA :

As announced in our past investigations, anesthetists regulated spinal sedation utilizing a hyperbaric bupivacaine (Marcaine® Spinal 0.5% Heavy, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) and 10 or 15 µg fentanyl for a one-sided TKA. The focused on tactile square level was T10, and in the wake of affirming the right square level, sedation was performed during the medical procedure utilizing propofol or dexmedetomidine. Following the TKA technique, a periarticular infusion containing an aggregate of 300 mg of ropivacaine, 10 mg of morphine, 30 mg of ketorolac, 300 μg of 1:1000 epinephrine, and 750 mg of cefuroxime was controlled in partitioned portions into the sheath of the average and horizontal insurance tendons, the back container, synovium, case, quadriceps muscle, subcutaneous tissue, and joint case.


Presentation Variable: Perioperative Magnesium Sulfate Administration:

In SNUBH, magnesium sulfate imbuement in spinal sedation was utilized routinely by S. H. Do (head agent of this examination) for TKA, with the aim to improve postoperative agony control and draw out the term of the spinal sensorial square. In the working room, a magnesium sulfate imbuement was begun with the acceptance of spinal sedation until the finish of the medical procedure. A blend of 50 mg/kg of magnesium sulfate in 100 mL of isotonic saline was mixed more than 15 min during the enlistment of sedation, and the mixture rate was balanced all through the medical procedure utilizing the reference pace of 15 mg/kg/h dependent on the patient's essential signs.


Measurable Analysis:

The gauge qualities of the patients were introduced as numbers with the rates for all out factors and as the mean with standard deviations for consistent factors. In the first place, we performed uni-and multivariable twofold calculated relapse for PPP one year after medical procedure in patients who experienced TKA. In the twofold strategic relapse examination, the nearness of incessant PPP one year after medical procedure was the needy variable. From there on, all covariates were remembered for a multivariable model for modification, with the exception of the length of sedation so as to stay away from multi-collinearity. The decency of fit for the multivariable model was tried utilizing the Hosmer–Lemeshow test.




From August 2012 to July 2017, 1024 patients experienced TKA because of essential OA. Among them, 48 patients were avoided for the accompanying reasons: preoperative ASA physical status ≥ 3 (n = 4), auxiliary OA (n = 3), history of past medical procedure on the knee (n = 30), bombed femoral nerve square (n = 10), and epidural PCA managed (n = 1). A further 52 patients were barred in light of the fact that they were lost to catch up for the assessment of PPP one year after TKA. Subsequently, a sum of 924 patients were in the long run remembered for the investigation, and 148 patients (16.0%) had PPP one year after TKA. The benchmark attributes of all patients are introduced



This review study indicated that perioperative magnesium sulfate organization was related with a lower rate of PPP one year after TKA. The outcomes were affirmed by PS alteration and recommended that perioperative magnesium sulfate organization has an advantage as to interminable PPP one year after TKA. In this examination, we explored PPP one year after TKA in light of the fact that patients were bound to be seen by the specialist around then than 3 or a half year after TKA in our organization. In this examination, the extent of patients with PPP one year after TKA was 16.0%, which was actually equivalent to that announced in an ongoing forthcoming associate investigation.


In a past meta-examination, perioperative fundamental magnesium sulfate organization decreased both postoperative torment and narcotic organization. This marvel was clarified by the perception that magnesium sulfate hinders calcium passage into cells by blocking NMDA receptors, which may cause an enemy of nociceptive impact for intense agonizing boosts. In view of this method of reasoning, we conjectured that the magnesium bunch in this review observational investigation may have less postoperative torment after TKA than the benchmark group, as exhibited in our past randomized clinical preliminary



This review observational examination demonstrated that perioperative magnesium sulfate organization was related with a lower pace of PPP one year after TKA, performed under spinal sedation. Our discoveries ought to be affirmed in planned clinical preliminaries.

Author(s): Sang-Hwan Do

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