Biomedical Research

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- Biomedical Research (2012) Volume 23, Issue 1

A Study of Pulmonary Functions and Lipid Peroxidation Biomarker in COPD: Correlation between Malondialdehyde and Lung Functions

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD, 2008) has defined Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) as “a diseased state which is characterized by airflow limitation that is not found to be fully reversible”. COPD is projected to be the third leading cause of deaths globally by 2030. The most common Risk Factor for COPD is tobacco smoking. Poor Socio-economic Status, Occupational Factors, Pollution and Poor Nutrition also contribute to development of COPD. Free Radicals carry one or more unpaired Electrons, capable of independent existence. These are highly reactive species, found implicated in various diseases, known to humans. Normally, they are kept under check by various Enzymatic as well as Non-enzymatic Antioxidant Defence Mechanisms. Enzymatic Antioxidants include Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and Glutathione Peroxidase. Lungs are exposed to high levels of Free Radicals. Production of ROS has been found directly linked to oxidation of Proteins, DNA, and Lipids, which may cause direct lung injury, or may induce a variety of Cellular Responses, through the generation of secondary Metabolic Reactive Species. Membrane Lipids are highly susceptible to Free Radical damage which is found to be highly detrimental to the functioning of the Cell. Malondialdehyde is a product of Lipid Peroxidation and an indirect measure of Free Radical activity in body. As free radical injury increases lung functions show decrease. Oxidative Stress is reported to play an important role in the Patho-physiology of COPD. The aim of the present Study is to evaluate the oxidant antioxidant imbalance in healthy non-smoker controls and COPD group. A total of 60 control and 60 COPD patients were studied. The mean age is more in COPD group, as compared to healthy controls, which identifies advancing age as a risk factor for COPD. The mean Body Mass Index (BMI Kg/m2) and weight of COPD group is reduced as compared to control group. GOLD 2008 criteria was used to assess lung functions. Lung functions namely FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEV1 % PREDICTED showed significant reduction in COPD groups, as compared to healthy non-smoker controls. MDA in Control and COPD group (1.09±0.09 and 1.41±0.23 nmol/ml respectively) showed significant changes (P<0.001). Our Study results also demonstrate significant negative correlations of MDA with FEV1 % PREDICTED (r=-0.828,P sig at <0.001 level), FEV1(r=-0.775, P sig at <0.001 level), FVC (r=-0.625,P sig at <0.001 level), FEV1/FVC % (r=-0.761,P sig at < 0.001). On the basis of our Study, it is concluded that advancing age and male gender are risk factors for COPD, the disease contributes to weight loss and there is inverse correlation between MDA and Lung functions

Author(s): Shah Mohammad Abbas Waseem, Mohd Mubarak Hussain, Zuber Ahmad , Najmul Islam

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