Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutic Research

Review Article - Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutic Research (2018) Volume 2, Issue 2

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and metformin hydrochloride usage: A short review.

Diabetes mellitus is a group of disorders in the carbohydrate metabolism in which the insulin action is diminished or erased by a change in its secretion, a decrease in its activity (due to a decreased functionality of insulin sensors in the tissues) or a combination of these two factors. As the disease progresses, damage to tissues or to the vascular system can lead to severe complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, cardiovascular problems, and alimentary ulceration. Diabetes mellitus can be classified into several types; however, there are two main forms: type 1 (insulindependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). The most common disease of our time is the type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The DM2 usually develops more in the adult age, affecting mainly the elderly and/or obese individuals. In this context, the use of metformin in the treatment of DM2 patients can be highlighted. Found in its salt form, metformin hydrochloride, it is still nowadays the drug of choice by the National Health System in South America, Europe, and North America. Its usual oral dose is 500 mg, administered two to three times a day, which can be increased gradually to 1000 mg. There are more than one thousand articles and reviewed studies reporting the efficacy of metformin in treatment and prevention of DM2. A comprehensive study called United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study demonstrated the efficacy of metformin in the treatment and prevention of DM2. This study evidenced metformin as safe, cost effective and corroborates other studies that define metformin as the first line of diabetes therapy.

Author(s): Gustavo Freire Petrovick

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