Purpose: Trophoblastic cancers (Choriocarcinoma, testicular and ovarian germ cell malignancies) secrete hyperglycosylated hCG and non-trophoblastic cancers secrete hyperglycosylated hCG free β- subunit.Both are structural variants of hCG independent to the hormone hCG. They are autocrines acting on a transforming growth factor β-II (TGF-β-II), receptor not acting on the hormone receptor. Here these molecules were examined as drivers of malignancy.
Methods: The cancer cell lines were examined, how they enzymatically invaded Matrigel chambers and how their growth responded to hyperglycosylated hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG free β-subunit signals. Use of hyperglycosylated hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG free β-subunit as tumor markers is examined in 959 cancer serum samples and 2257 cancer urine samples, plus 284 urines from benign disease patients. In addition, 56 new ovarian cancer urines were collected and tested in the supersensitive B204 assay.
Results: Hyperglycosylated hCG and its free β-subunit are both strong promoters of malignancy functions. A total of 100% of trophoblastic malignancies produced hyperglycosylated hCG markers in serum and urine. A total of 30% of non-trophoblastic cancers were detected in serum and 44% in urine. As shown, in reality, considering simple and complex autocrine secretion, 100% of nontrophoblastic malignancies produce hyperglycosylated hCG and hyperglycosylated hCG free β- subunit markers in urine. As demonstrated, hyperglycosylated hCG and its free β-subunit exist in all human cancers and promote malignancy. Multiple other researchers have confirmed these results. Discussion: It is inferred that hyperglycosylated hCG and its free β-subunit are produced by all or most human cancers, and are the promoters of malignancy.