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Down Syndrome

Down syndrome or Down's syndrome, also called as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the occurrence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is frequently associated with physical growth delay, mild to control intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features. The average IQ of a young adult with Down syndrome is 50, equal to the mental ability of an 8- or 9-year-old child, but this can differ widely.

The parents of the affected individual are typically genetically normal. The probability increase from less than 0.1% in 20-year- old mothers to 3% in those of age 45. The extra chromosome is believed to happen by chance, with no known behavioral activity or environmental factor that changes the chance. Down syndrome can be identified during pregnancy by prenatal screening followed by diagnostic testing or after birth by direct study and genetic testing. Since the beginning of screening, pregnancies with the diagnosis are often terminated.

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