Journal of Molecular Medicine and Therapy

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Chromatin undergoes several structural changes during a cell cycle. Histone proteins are the simple packer and arranger of chromatin and can be altered by many post-translational alterations to alter chromatin packing (Histone modification). Most of the alterations occur on the histone tail. The costs in terms of chromatin accessibility and compaction depend both on the amino-acid that is modified and the type of modification. For example, Histone acetylation grades in loosening and increased accessibility of chromatin for replication and transcription. Lysine tri-methylation can also be correlated with transcriptional activity (tri-methylation of histone H3 Lysine 4) or transcriptional repression and chromatin compaction (tri-methylation of histone H3 Lysine 9 or 27).

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