Journal of Molecular Oncology Research

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Short Communication - Journal of Molecular Oncology Research (2022) Volume 6, Issue 10

The signs, causes and treatment for endometrial cancer

Jung Hoon*

Department of Preventive Medicine

*Corresponding Author:
Jung Hoon
Department of Preventive Medicine
Korea University College of Medicine
Seoul, Republic of Korea
E-mail:[email protected]

Received:26-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. AAMOR-22-81816; Editor assigned: 28-Sep-2022, PreQC No. AAMOR-22-81816 (PQ); Reviewed:12-Oct-2022, QC No. AAMOR-22-81816; Revised:17-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. AAMOR-22-81816 (R); Published:24-Oct-2022, DOI: 10.35841/aamor-6.10.146

Citation: Hoon J. The signs, causes and treatment for endometrial cancer. J Mol Oncol Res. 2022; 6(10):146

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Abstract

One of the rare diseases with rising incidence and fatality rates in the United States is uterine cancer, which is partly attributable to increases in the frequency of obesity and overweight since the 1980s. It is the fourth most typical cancer to be diagnosed and the seventh typical cancer-related mortality in American women. The CDC examined incidence data from the National Program of Cancer Registries, the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programme of the National Cancer Institute, and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System in order to assess recent trends in uterine cancer incidence and mortality by race and ethnicity2. The most recent data for incidence and death are through 2015 and 2016, respectively. Incidence rates of uterine cancer increased by 0.7% annually between 1999 and 2015, and death rates rose 1.1% annually between 1999 and 2016, with non-Hispanic white (white) women experiencing smaller increases than women from other racial/ethnic groups.

Keywords

Endometrial Cancer, Uterine Cancer, Cancer Cells, Cancer Treatment.

Introduction

The most common malignant tumour of the uterus is endometrioid endometrial cancer. However, many less common malignant diseases also develop in the uterus, including both carcinomas and sarcomas. Most notable of these tumours are papillary serous carcinomas, clear-cell carcinomas, carcinosarcomas, stromal sarcomas, and leiomyosarcomas. These less common cancers can be aggressive, and account for a greatly disproportionate amount of deaths from uterine cancers. Because they are uncommon, physicians will usually have seen only a few cases, and randomised data to guide treatment often do not exist. This review summarises the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and prognoses of the less common malignant diseases of the uterus, and presents the information available to guide the clinician about treatment options[1].

Strong beams are used in radiation therapy to eliminate cancer cells. Their DNA is damaged, making them unable to reproduce. With external radiation therapy, a machine beams radiation towards the pelvis and other cancerous parts of the patient. A tiny device containing radiation is inserted into the vagina for a few minutes at a time during brachytherapy, also known as internal radiation therapy [2].

If the cancer has spread, your doctor may advise you to undergo radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, also known as radiation therapy, employs x-ray beams to kill or damage cancer cells, preventing them from growing, multiplying, or spreading while causing minimal damage to healthy organs. This therapy usually begins 6 to 8 weeks after surgery and can be external (when you lie near a machine that shoots x-rays at your cancer) or internal (when you lie near a machine that shoots x-rays at your cancer) (also known as brachytherapy, where a small radioactive device is placed inside or next to the cancer). Radiotherapy is usually, but not always, administered following surgery. The majority of clinics in Australia use high-dose-rate brachytherapy, which provides treatment in minutes and does not necessitate an overnight hospital stay [3].

Signs

You may experience vaginal discharge or bleeding that is abnormal for you if you have uterine cancer. When bleeding occurs between periods or after menopause, for example, it may be abnormal due to its severity or timing. Bleeding after your period has stopped is never natural. Other signs of uterine cancer may include pelvic discomfort or pain.

Consult a dOctor right once if you experience bleeding that is out of the ordinary for you, especially if you have already experienced menopause. Additionally, if any additional symptoms persist for more than two weeks, consult a physician [4].

Causes

Endometrial cancer's precise origin is uncertain. The DNA of the cells that make up the endometrium, or uterine lining, undergoes changes (mutations), and this is what is known to occur.

The mutation causes normal, healthy cells to become abnormal cells. Before dying at a particular time, healthy cells grow and multiply at a specific rate. Instead of dying off as expected, abnormal cells multiply and reproduce uncontrollably. As the abnormal cells build up, a bulk forms. By dissolving from a primary tumour and infecting neighbouring tissues, cancerous cells can invade many organs and tissues throughout the body[5].

Treatment

The most common types of treatment for women with endometrial cancer are:

Surgery for Endometrial Cancer.

Radiation Therapy for Endometrial Cancer.

Chemotherapy for Endometrial Cancer.

Hormone Therapy for Endometrial Cancer.

Targeted Therapy for Endometrial Cancer.

Immunotherapy for Endometrial Cancer.

Conclusion

Endometrial cancer is still the most common type of gynecologic cancer in the United States. Improving our understanding of the genetic abnormalities and molecular derangements in this heterogeneous disease will allow us to identify novel therapeutic options. Furthermore, improved surgical techniques make it possible to reduce the morbidity associated with surgical intervention. The goal of this disease treatment remains to maximise survival outcomes while minimising all treatment-related morbidities; rapid advances in our knowledge gap will allow us to achieve this goal in the future. Furthermore, focusing on endometrial cancer preventative measures, similar to attempting to reduce the obesity epidemic, may have broader implications in combating this disease.

References

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  3. Kurman RJ, Kaminski PF, Norris HJ. The behavior of endometrial hyperplasia. A long?term study of “untreated” hyperplasia in 170 patients. Canc. 1985;56(2):403-12.
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  5. Trimble CL, Kauderer J, Zaino R, et al. Concurrent endometrial carcinoma in women with a biopsy diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Canc. 2006;106(4):812-9.
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  9. Hahn HS, Chun YK, Kwon YI, et al. Concurrent endometrial carcinoma following hysterectomy for atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Euro Jour of Obst & Gyneco and Repro Bio. 2010;150(1):80-3.
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