Perspective - Journal of Public Health and Nutrition (2022) Volume 5, Issue 2
Environmental factors influencing public health and medicine.
Department of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Boston, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Morten Kingsley
Department of Public Health
University of São Paulo, Boston, USA
Received: 27-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AAJPHN-22-107; Editor assigned: 29-Jan-2022, Pre QC No. AAJPHN-22-107(PQ); Reviewed: 12-Feb-2022, QC No. AAJPHN-22-107; Revised: 15-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. AAJPHN-22-107(R); Published: 22-Feb-2022, DOI: 10.35841/aajphn-5.2.107
Citation: Kingsley M. Environmental factors influencing public health and medicine. J Pub Health Nutri. 2022;5(2):107
Environmental health effects are on the rise across the United States, particularly among low-income people and people of colour. Researchers in the field of environmental science are looking at possible links between the environment and human health. As a result, primary care physicians and other healthcare providers' roles and responsibilities are shifting. This study outlines some of the data that suggests doctors should now consider human-environment interactions as a critical component of providing good primary care. Environmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, lung sickness, neurobehavioral toxicity, endocrine disruptors, processes of environmental disease, and cultural competency are some of the topics covered. Concerns about these and other environmental issues have an impact on how primary care is done now and will be conducted in the future. Physicians must pay more attention to advancements in environmental medicine as a result of biomedical technology and public awareness. Environmental medicine is, ironically, one of the least taught subjects in medical school. Clinicians, researchers, educators, public policy makers, and the general public must work together to lower the risk of environmental health risks and improve quality of life in order to successfully respond to growing concerns about the role of the environment in human health .
Environmental variables in health and disease are key sources of morbidity and death in the United States, and the significance of environmental factors in health and disease must progressively affect health service design and delivery. Even as genetics advances, it is evident that genes are only one part of the picture when it comes to complicated diseases. Environmental factors play a big role in a lot of this morbidity. Knowing about these elements can help with diagnosis, which is crucial for future treatment. Environmental factors that cause disease can also provide information on therapy, prognosis, and how health resources are used .
Environmental exposure data, along with genetic information, can assist clinicians in tailoring disease preventive methods, both primary and secondary. The knowledge base of interactions between environmental exposures and susceptibility in defining disease risks has grown thanks to molecular epidemiology, which uses biomarkers to examine risk variables in populations. These advancements will have to be reflected in clinical practise and public health services. Variations in genetic characteristics impacting DNA repair and carcinogen metabolism, for example, may explain greater cancer risks in particular demographic groups, according to the research. Furthermore, data on age-related vulnerability to environmental insults is more reliable today than it was previously. Infants and children are more vulnerable to environmental toxicants than adults due to different exposures and developing organ systems.
Mechanisms of environmental disease
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in mechanistically understanding how and at what degrees humans are affected by environmental agents (chemical or physical). The goal of this research is to better understand the complex process by which disease occurs and to use what we've learned to enhance sickness prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Studies of cadmium, a metal used in electroplating, paints, and cadmium-nicked batteries, are a contemporary example of this advancement. Cadmium appears to prevent programmed cell death, or apoptosis, according to the findings. Cells that would ordinarily perish, including those with damaged DNA, can live and divide if this process is blocked. Apoptosis suppression could be a key component of the cadmium carcinogenic process. Cadmium is a known risk factor for prostate cancer, which has increased by about 30% in the previous two decades, especially among African- Americans .
The finding that other environmental insults such as ultraviolet-x-irradiation and chemotherapeutic medicines that can damage DNA can also begin highly regulated forms of cell death has provided more insight into the role of apoptosis in environmentally associated disease. 48 Researchers have discovered, for example, that proteins that detect DNA damage and induce apoptosis also alter the cell cycle, which can lead to cancer if it malfunctions. Significantly, the significant interest in the biological basis of disease linked to the environment shows a desire to follow any path that could lead to accurate diagnosis and treatment . Previous mechanistic investigations provided answers to certain problems while also raising new ones. A three-pronged multidisciplinary strategy incorporating invitro studies with cells and tissues from laboratory animals and humans, invivo studies employing laboratory animals, and the use of data from clinical investigations and epidemiology studies can provide answers to some questions. Data from the three types of investigations is regularly combined using computer systems .
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