Mini Review - Journal of Agricultural Science and Botany (2023) Volume 7, Issue 5
The role of plant hormones in regulating growth and development: Implications for crop productivity.Nabil Dawood*
Agricultural Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt
- *Corresponding Author:
- Nabil Dawood
Agricultural Botany Department
Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University
Tanta 31527, Egypt
Received: 05-Oct -2023, Manuscript No. AAASCB-23- 117220; Editor assigned: 07 - Oct -2023, Pre QC No. AAASCB -23-117220 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-oct -2023, QC No. AAASCB-23- 117220; Revised: 24 - Oct -2023, Manuscript No. AAASCB-23- 117220 (R); Published: 30 - Oct -2023, DOI: 10.35841/2591-7366-7.5.201
Citation: Dawood N. The role of plant hormones in regulating growth and development: Implications for crop productivity. J Agric Sci Bot. 2023; 7(5):201
Plants have evolved a complex network of hormone signaling pathways to regulate their growth and development. Plant hormones, also known as phytohormones, act as chemical messengers that control diverse processes, including cell division, elongation, differentiation, and responses to environmental stimuli. In this article, we delve into the roles of major plant hormones and their implications for crop productivity. Auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), are involved in regulating cell elongation, root development, apical dominance, and tropic responses. By influencing cell expansion and division, auxins contribute to overall plant growth and architecture. Researchers have explored the use of synthetic auxins for crop improvement, aiming to enhance root development, promote lateral branching, and increase yield .
Gibberellins (GAs) play a crucial role in stem elongation, seed germination, and flowering induction. Manipulating GA levels or their signaling pathways can affect plant height, flowering time, and fruit development. Breeders have utilized GA-responsive mutants and GA biosynthesis inhibitors to control plant height and enhance productivity in crops such as rice and wheat. Cytokinins are involved in cell division, shoot initiation, and organ development. They interact with auxins to maintain a balance between cell division and differentiation. Manipulating cytokinin levels and signaling pathways can influence crop yield, particularly in fruits and seeds. The use of cytokinin-based foliar sprays and genetic engineering approaches has shown potential in improving fruit quality and seed yield .
Abscisic acid (ABA) is known for its role in seed dormancy, stomatal closure, and stress responses. It regulates plant responses to drought, salinity, and other environmental stresses. Understanding ABA signaling pathways can lead to the development of stress-tolerant crop varieties with improved productivity. Ethylene is a gaseous hormone involved in fruit ripening, senescence, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Modulating ethylene biosynthesis or perception pathways can prolong shelf life, reduce post-harvest losses, and improve crop quality. Ethylene inhibitors and enhancers have been used in horticulture to manage fruit ripening and improve yield .
Jasmonates (JAs) and salicylic acid (SA) are hormones associated with plant defense against pathogens and pests. They regulate defense-related gene expression and activate defense mechanisms, including the production of secondary metabolites. Enhancing JA and SA signaling pathways can boost crop resistance to diseases and pests. Understanding the interplay between different hormonal pathways and their integration is crucial for optimizing crop performance. Advances in molecular biology techniques, such as genome editing and transcriptomics, enable targeted manipulation of hormone-related genes to enhance crop productivity. Additionally, the use of hormone-based treatments and precision agriculture techniques can fine-tune hormone levels for specific crop requirements .
Plant hormones play vital roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses in crops. Harnessing the potential of plant hormone signaling pathways can significantly impact crop productivity and quality. Future research should focus on unraveling the intricate mechanisms underlying hormone crosstalk and developing innovative approaches to manipulate hormone signaling for sustainable agriculture. A comprehensive understanding of plant hormones and their regulatory functions holds great potential for optimizing crop productivity, enhancing stress tolerance, and improving overall agricultural sustainability. Integrating this knowledge into crop breeding programs and management practices can pave the way for more efficient and resilient agricultural systems .
- Abdel‐Latif HH, Shams El‐Din NG, Ibrahim HA. Antimicrobial activity of the newly recorded red alga Grateloupia doryphora collected from the Eastern Harbor, Alexandria, Egypt. J Appl Microbiol. 2018;125(5):1321-32.
- Gutbrod K, Romer J, Dörmann P. Phytol metabolism in plants. Prog Lipid Res. 2019;74:1-7.
- Cardoso C, Ripol A, Afonso C, et al. Fatty acid profiles of the main lipid classes of green seaweeds from fish pond aquaculture. Food Sci Nutr. 2017;5(6):1186-94.
- Colla G, Rouphael Y, Di Mattia E, et al. Co‐inoculation of Glomus intraradices and Trichoderma atroviride acts as a biostimulant to promote growth, yield and nutrient uptake of vegetable crops. J Sci Food Agric. 2015;95(8):1706-15.
- Gouda S, Kerry RG, Das G, et al. Revitalization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria for sustainable development in agriculture. Microbiol Res.2018;206:131-40.