Rapid Communication - Journal of Cholesterol and Heart Disease (2022) Volume 6, Issue 5
The role of Food allergies increasing Food-associated Anaphylaxis
Department of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy
- *Corresponding Author:
- Joan Protudjer
Department of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla,
Received:14-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. AACHD-22-80368; Editor assigned: 16-Sep-2022, PreQC No. AACHD-22-80368(PQ); Reviewed:03-Oct-2022, QC No. AACHD-22-80368; Revised:07-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. AACHD-22-80368(R); Published:14-Oct-2022, DOI:10.35841/aachd-6.5.121
Citation: Protudjer J. The role of food allergies increasing food-associated anaphylaxis. J Cholest Heart Dis. 2022; 6(5):121
A negative immunologic reaction to a dietary protein is what is meant by a food allergy. Food-related reactions are associated to a wide range of physical manifestations, including those that affect the skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Food allergy is one of the primary causes of anaphylaxis; hence an allergist should be consulted for an accurate and timely diagnosis and course of treatment because food allergy is one of the main causes of anaphylaxis. A thorough history and diagnostic procedures, such as serum-specific Immunoglobulin-E (IgE) testing, skin prick testing, and, if necessary, oral food challenges are used to make the diagnosis. Once a food allergy has been diagnosed, it is usually necessary to completely eliminate the offending food allergen from the diet. The preferred form of treatment for patients with severe systemic symptoms is intramuscular injection of epinephrine into the lateral thigh. Despite the fact that most kids "grow out of" milk, egg and soy allergies.
Food allergy, Food protein, Anaphylaxis, Food, Allergy, Hidden, Allergens, Co-factors.
An unfavourable immunologic reaction to a dietary protein is referred to as a food allergy. Food allergies must be distinguished from other non-immune mediated unpleasant reactions to foods, especially since more adults and children change their diets due to suspected food allergies than any other cause. Food intolerances resulting from metabolic diseases, responses to toxic pollutants, or adverse reactions to pharmacologically active food components are examples of adverse reactions that are not labelled as food allergies. The topic of food allergies has received a great deal of media coverage in recent years. Although the actual incidence is unknown, recent estimates indicate that up to 4% of people and young children in North America may have a food allergy, and the disorder's prevalence appears to be on the rise .
Another common reason why anaphylaxis patients visit emergency rooms is a food allergy. In the United States, 200 fatalities a year are due to food allergies. There are currently no reliable statistics on mortality brought on by food allergies in Canada. Because anaphylaxis can occur from inadvertent exposure to even very small amounts of the food that triggers the allergic reaction, accurate identification and management of food allergies are essential. An overview of recent research on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and effective treatment of food allergies is given in this article. This review largely focuses on food allergies caused by Immunoglobulin E (IgE) .
The traditional view that food sensitization occurs by oral consumption has changed in favour of other pathways including the skin and possibly the lungs. The skin has become the focus of study as a result of several epidemiological findings. First, it was discovered that using ointments with peanut oil doubled the likelihood of developing a peanut allergy. Then, it was shown that SNPs in the skin barrier protein filaggrin that decrease barrier function are linked to food allergy. There were findings that, only in those individuals who possess the loss-of-function SNPs for filaggrin, the discovery of peanut allergy was linked to the presence of peanut allergen in samples of household dust .
Overall, skin sensitization is probably a significant factor in the emergence of food allergies. However, it cannot be completely ruled out that the respiratory system also contributes to sensitization; there is some evidence that filaggrin mutations encourage allergic illness in the airways. The oral route's involvement in food sensitization is debatable, but it is clear that its programming tends more toward tolerance and compatibility with daily living. A deeper knowledge of the relative significance of the numerous potential routes of sensitization is still crucial for developing effective prevention measures for food allergies .
Anaphylaxis, which is characterised as a significant allergic reaction with a rapid onset and a potential for fatality, is the most severe reaction the medical standards for determining anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis manifests itself in a wide variety of ways, frequently developing minutes to two hours after contact to food. Early warning signs shouldn't be disregarded because reactions can be incredibly unpredictable, differ from person to person and occur in waves within the same person. This is particularly true if there has previously been an anaphylactic reaction. Anaphylaxis can be brought on by any of the usual food allergies, although peanut, tree nuts, and shellfish are typically the main offenders .
Food allergy is a significant clinical issue that is becoming more common. An allergist's evaluation is crucial for proper diagnosis and therapy. Currently, a thorough history and diagnostic procedures including SPT, serum-specific IgE testing, and, if necessary, oral food challenges are used to make the diagnosis. Avoiding the offending food and administering epinephrine when needed and promptly in response to allergic reactions are the cornerstones of treatment. Improved techniques for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of food allergies will be created as more information about the pathophysiology of the illness becomes available
- Peters RL, Krawiec M, Koplin JJ, et al .Update on food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2021;32(4):647-57.
- Soller L, Ben-Shoshan M, Harrington DW, et al. Adjusting for nonresponse bias corrects overestimates of food allergy prevalence. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3(2):291-3.
- Renz H, Allen KJ, Sicherer SH, et al. Food allergy. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018;4(1):1-20.
- Shimamoto SR, Bock SA. Update on the clinical features of food-induced anaphylaxis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin. 2002;2(3):211-6.
- Young MC, Munoz-Furlong A, Sicherer SH. Management of food allergies in schools: a perspective for allergists. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124(2):175-82.