Editorial - Journal of Cell Biology and Metabolism (2021) Volume 3, Issue 4
The reasons for developing viral vaccines for a specific human population
- Corresponding Author:
- Sarah Watson Managing Editor, Journal of Cell Biology and Metabolism, United Kingdom E-mail: [email protected]
Accepted date: September 03, 2021
The use of a subunit viral vaccination to prevent a specific viral infection has had little effectiveness. This is in contrast to the period when the whole Cowpox virus was used for vaccination to prevent the smallpox viral pandemic in China over a thousand years ago, before Edward Jenner approved it in a scientific method despite the fact that immunity was unknown. Nowadays, a thorough understanding of immunology has been discovered. With the goal of preventing side effects, subunit viral vaccines became the most popular alternative for viral vaccine production. Many types of viral vaccinations, on the other hand, were unable to match our success. There is some debate as to why viral vaccinations aren't effective for everyone.
This is an issue about which we need to rewrite our understanding and manipulate in the proper direction for the creation of viral vaccines. Vaccine manufacturing, of course, necessitates a high degree of Quality Control (QC) at every stage of the process, and batch release requires compliance in a variety of assays. Assays include the exact determination of physico-chemical characteristics including pH and osmolality, component identification and stability studies for antigens, excipients, and adjuvants, microbiological sterility testing, concentration and potency testing, and animal-based toxicity testing. Various Regulatory Agencies may use different release criteria and require different testing techniques for release in their individual jurisdiction, complicating the testing procedure for a given vaccination. Although there are some similar ideas, the QC test profile for each vaccination and each region of distribution is unique. For example, bulk diptheria toxoid vaccine QC testing comprises tests for all of the characteristics listed above, as well as animal testing for at least 6 weeks to demonstrate the lack of residual toxicity. However, because diptheria toxoid is commonly used in combination vaccines like DTaP, a second round of QC testing is necessary once the other antigens are blended. The producer must once again show sterility, that the physicochemical characteristics are correct and stable, and that all components in the mixture are recognisable and at the right concentration and potency. At this point, more residual toxicity testing in animals is necessary, which will extend at least another 6 weeks to the release date.
To avoid a viral infection, the body must develop a protective antibody that prevents the viral particle from attaching itself to the viral receptor on a target cell. Adaptive immunity, in theory, requires induction not just by a specific antigen, but also by our biological protein, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), which forms a complex molecule with the right epitope to activate a specific T cell receptor. MHC molecules are divided into two categories: class I and class II. MHC class I is necessary for the induction of cytotoxic T cells, whereas MHC class II is required for the induction of helper T cells. The helper T cell is essential for triggering a successful stage of acquired immunity, which includes the production of a particular protective antibody. MHC class II plays an important role in the production of viral-specific antibodies by inducing helper T cells and later B cells to manufacture particular antibodies. Because the MHC gene alleles are extremely variable, the chance that two people have the same gene alleles is one in a million, which is most commonly observed in identical twins. As a result, a subunit viral vaccination with a limited number of epitopes would restrict an antigen presenting cell's capacity to process some epitopes in order to generate specific helper T cell clones, such as a dendritic cell. As a result, in some persons, the matching B cell clones are unable to produce the specific antibody required to kill the infectious viral particle.