Journal of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Research

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Opinion Article - Journal of Clinical Oncology and Cancer Research (2022) Volume 5, Issue 6

Risk study utilising Medicare claims data: Initial and recurrent thromboembolic disease rates in individuals with and without cancer.

Choi Sasha*

Department of Academic Surgery, University hospital, UK

*Corresponding Author:
Choi Sasha
Department of Academic Surgery
University hospital
UK
E-mail:[email protected]

Received: 02-Dec-2022, Manuscript No.AACOCR-22-84822; Editor assigned: 07-Dec-2022, PreQC No.AACOCR-22-84822(PQ); Reviewed:16-Dec-2022, QC No.AACOCR-22-84822; Revised:24-Dec-2022, Manuscript No.AACOCR-22-84822(R); Published: 30-Dec-2022, DOI:10.35841/aacocr-5.6.130

Citation: Sasha C. Risk study utilising Medicare claims data: Initial and recurrent thromboembolic disease rates in individuals with and without cancer. J Clin Oncol Cancer Res. 2022;5(6):130

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Abstract

Malignant cell formation usually occurs without symptoms until the tumour has grown significantly. When they occur, the location, size, and kind of the malignancy all affect the signs and symptoms that manifest. It can be challenging to identify or misdiagnose because it is typically extremely widespread and can be linked to other illnesses or disorders.

Keywords

Malignancy, Autoimmune disease, Adult pediatric.

Introduction

Malignancy is the propensity for a medical condition to deteriorate over time. Cancer is most frequently described as having malignancy. A malignant tumour differs from a benign tumour that is not cancerous in that it has uncontrolled growth, can invade nearby tissues, and occasionally spreads to distant regions. None of the characteristics apply to benign tumours [1].

Anaplasia, invasiveness, and metastasis are characteristics of cancer that are considered malignant. Genome instability, another characteristic of malignant tumours, causes malignancies to typically contain between 10,000 and 100,000 mutations throughout their whole genomes, as determined by whole genome sequencing. Cancers frequently have heterogeneous tumours with several subclones. Additionally, they usually have decreased expression of DNA repair enzymes as a result of altered microRNAs that regulate DNA repair gene expression or epigenetic methylation of DNA repair genes [2].

A lump on the body that can be felt or seen can be used to identify tumours. A mammography or an MRI test can be performed to detect the presence of a tumour when there is no evident sign of a lump. A biopsy would then be necessary in the case of an existing tumour to provide a diagnosis because it determines whether the tumour is malignant or benign. A little sample of the tissue must be examined in a lab for this. Treatment would be required if the tumour was found to be malignant. The best results come from early intervention. Chemotherapy, surgery, photo radiation, and hyperthermia are only a few of the treatment options [3].

Observable or quantifiable characteristics, such as weight loss (without attempting), a fever, or unusual bleeding, are signs. On the other hand, internal symptoms, such exhaustion or changes in appetite, are felt by the person. Pain (such as headaches or bone aches), skin changes (such as new moles or pimples), coughing, and irregular bleeding are just a few of the prevalent signs and symptoms [4].

The ability of infectious disease agents to produce a large number of malignant cells plays a role in the development of malignancy. These include viral causes, bacterial causes, fungal causes, and parasitic causes. In conditions of chronic inflammation, bacteria, fungus, and other pathogens can create an environment that has the potential to be cancerous. Due to a cell transformation process, viral agents can aid in the development of malignant tumours. Either DNA integration or cellular-DNA modification of growth regulator genes can cause this cell transformation. Because it can accelerate the development of tumours, inflammation can also contribute to the start of malignancy. Inflammation primarily serves to regenerate cells, heal tissue, and protect the body from invaders [5].

Conclusion

Recent trials of anti-angiogenic agents show promise in the treatment of solid human cancers. The angiopoietins are a new family of proteins that appear to be influential in the development of the tumour vasculature. Manipulation of the angiopoietin balance may provide a potential therapeutic target in human cancer.

References

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  9. Levitan N, Dowlati A, Remick SC, et al. a href="https://journals.lww.com/md-journal/Abstract/1999/09000/Rates_of_Initial_and_Recurrent_Thromboembolic.1.aspx" _fcksavedurl="https://journals.lww.com/md-journal/Abstract/1999/09000/Rates_of_Initial_and_Recurrent_Thromboembolic.1.aspx" target="_blank">Rates of initial and recurrent thromboembolic disease among patients with malignancy versus those without malignancy: risk analysis using Medicare claims data. Med. 1999;78(5):285-91.
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