Mini Review - Integrative Neuroscience Research (2022) Volume 5, Issue 7
Review of current research and potential uses for virtual reality in neurosurgery.
Department of Neurology
- *Corresponding Author:
- Tobias Jonas
Department of Neurology
University of Lubeck, Lubeck
Received:26-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. AAINR-22-81828; Editor assigned:29-Sep-2022, PreQC No. AAINR-22-81828 (PQ); Reviewed:12-Oct-2022, QC No. AAINR-22-81828; Revised:19-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. AAINR-22-81828(R); Published:24-Oct-2022, DOI:10.35841/aainr-5.7.131
Citation: Jonas T. Review of current research and potential uses for virtual reality in neurosurgery. Integr Neuro Res. 2022; 5(7):131
Years of tradition and legal and ethical considerations about patient safety, work hour limitations, and the price of operating room time have changed surgical training over time. Before using them on patients, sophisticated methods can be taught and practised through surgical simulation and skill training. The manipulation of artificial tissue in a box trainer using real tools and video equipment can serve as a simple kind of simulation training. Virtual reality (VR) simulators that are more sophisticated are now accessible and prepared for mass use. Early computer systems have shown to be efficient and discriminating. Newer systems make it possible to create thorough curriculum and complete procedural simulations.
Virtual reality, Simulation, and Haptics.
For more than a century, observational learning has been a cornerstone of surgical education in the United States. The cost of operating room (OR) time, constraints on residents working 80 hours per week, and legal and ethical issues for patient safety have all recently become more of a burden for this practise. Neurosurgical treatments can be taught and practised outside of the operating room thanks to the developing fields of surgical simulation and virtual training. With more effective and efficient training techniques, it is possible to solve issues with patient safety, risk management, OR management, and work hour needs. Simulator training's present objective is to assist students in developing the abilities necessary to carry out difficult surgical procedures before they are practised on actual patients.
Virtual environments (VEs) are referred to by a variety of names, including artificial reality, cyberspace, VR, virtual worlds, and synthetic environment. All of these words refer to an application that enables the user to view and engage in three-dimensional worlds that are far away, expensive, dangerous, or otherwise inaccessible. The sensory and interactive user experience should be as close to a convincing simulation of the actual as possible. This is a key objective in the creation of these virtual systems. Full immersion into a virtual world, augmentations of the real world, or “through-the-window” worlds is all possibilities in a VR computer-generated spatial environment. While interactive 3D computer graphics and other "interacting" technologies are still developing, the technology for seeing is real-time.
The importance of simulation in neurosurgery training
Neurosurgeons must frequently hone their abilities, giving performers the chance to practise in a safe setting allows them to make mistakes without suffering the consequences, but doing so comes with a number of difficulties. Surgery blunders can have disastrous repercussions, and educating during surgery lengthens operating hours and raises the patient's overall risk. Every time, every patient deserves to be treated by a skilled doctor. Additionally, one-on-one teaching is necessary for mastering new skills. However, there are frequently a finite amount of teachers, cases, and hours available. The need for simulation scenarios as a means of getting through these barriers has been acknowledged by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) .
The new system of graduate medical education will include simulations, possible alternative are VR training simulators. These simulators are comparable to flight simulators, where aspiring pilots log training hours before flying a real aircraft. Under computer control, surgeons can rehearse challenging procedures without endangering a patient. In addition, these simulations don't have any time or place restrictions, allowing surgeons to practise at any time. Additionally, VR offers a special tool for learning about anatomical anatomy. Giving students a realistic sense of how anatomical parts interact in 3D space is one of the biggest challenges in medical education. With VR, the student may repeatedly examine the interesting structures, disassemble them, reassemble them, and observe them from practically any 3D angle .
A crucial first step in improving the experience of performing and learning neurosurgical procedures is the use of virtual environments. Currently, virtual technologies are utilised to instruct surgeons, get the surgical team ready for operations, and give priceless intraoperative data. Users have reacted favourably to these systems and are hopeful about the potential uses for these technologies in the future. The hypothesis that tactile input improves the realism of virtual hand-object interactions is supported by fMRI experiments employing a tactile virtual reality interface with a data glove. These investigations revealed activation maps in the anticipated modulations in motor, somatosensory, and parietal cortex. Users must therefore be involved in the design of these systems and in practical evaluations of their potential uses. Statistical proof that a virtual system improves neurosurgery performance over conventional planning or intra-operative systems has not been addressed in many researches.
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